Emotions and The Body in Buddhist Contemplative Practice and Mindfulness-Based Therapy Pathways of Somatic Intelligence


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DY IN BUDDHIST NTEMPLATIVE LNESS- athways o Somatic Inte igence Practice and Mindfulness-Based Therapy Body in Buddhist Contemplative Practice and Mindfulness-Based Therapy and International Studies Library of Congress Control Number: 2017936340 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the movement of your body is a fully sufcient teacher to move you into a state Risa F. Kaparo, Awakening Somatic Intelligence To my family Working through a tough winter at my desk, my family gave me the warmth and affection I needed and I am grateful to Maneesh, Adeesh, Chandeesh, I also extend my heartfelt gratitude to the loving memory of my wife, Kalyani and the memory of my beloved parents. With gratitude To Prof. Venerable Kammai Dhammasami and the International Theravada Buddhist Missionary University, Myanmar for sponsorship of the MYANMAR LECTURES (20122016) To three great architects of pain management: Jon Kabat-Zinn, Vidyamala Burch and Risa Kaparo Somatic learning is the art and practice of embodied mindfulness I wish to present the thematic relationships of the different chapters, as described by Risa F. Kaparo, whose specialty is pain and trauma manage ment, as the art and practice of embodied mindfulness, or in ordinary language, the wisdom of the body. The centrality of the body is carried afictive emotions and developing positive emotions. REFACE restricting the intelligence of the body to pain and trauma management but to the intelligence of the body in emotion management. The body in Buddhist contemplative practice is presented with a highly focussed tant contribution to the emerging eld of moral psychology at the International Theravada Buddhist Missionary University (ITBMU) con ference in Myanmar. While I present the emotions mainly from a introduce the perspective of Sigmund Freud who said that his clients acted as if anatomy does not exist, and that hysterics suffer due PREFACE that was developed by the neuroscientist, Antonio Damasio. This book EFERENCE Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligence Fontana Press. I greatly appreciate the guidance I received from Prof. G. Somaratne, an eminent Pali scholar for helping me with rening the Pali diacritical marks. I am also indebted to several staff members of the Palgrave psy chology department for helping me with this project at various stages of evaluating the proposal, and receiving the rst draft of this book. I wish to place on record the assistance and encouragement I received from Laura Aldridge throughout the progress of the project and also thank the production team for advice and help as the text goes to print. Last but not the least, I appreciate Anne Murphys assistance for nalizing Mews and Maryna Mews for rening the text and recommending many CKNOWLEDGEMENTS ONTENTS Pain and Trauma Management Emotion Studies: Darwin, James and Freud The Nature of Human Volition and Intentions A Journey of Self-Awakening Free Will The historical background to the present book is found in the emergence of Somatic Psychology and body-oriented therapies, presented as an excellent narrative by Barratt (The emergence of somatic psychology and bodymind therapy, Palgrave Macmillan, London, The present work goes beyond this study, introducing the more recent development of somatic intelligence, very much visible in the work and writings of Jon Kabat-Zinn, Risa Kaparo and Vidyamala Burch to whom this book is dedicated as a mark of appreciation. But the present book works on a larger area in focussing on theories of the relationship ATIC PSYCHOLOGY IN HISTOR ICAL PERSPECTI recognizes this experience as the foundation and origination of all our experiential potential. (Barratt HE OGIC OF S OM ATIC NTELLIGENCE : IGHT IGNIFICANT TR ANDS When Gardner ( presented his epoch-making theory of multiple intelligence, his research was inuenced by his critique of the IQ test as a yagata sutta which takes the physical bliss ATIC INTELLIGENCE: EIGHT SIGNIFICA ATIC PSYCHOLOGY IN HISTOR ICAL PERSPECTI repugnance and loathing. The fact that a rm grounding of awareness of the body provides an important basis for the development of both calm and insight may be why, of the four tive view of reality without any bodymind reaction/emotional reactivity. Thus, in the work of the three great architects of pain management, Jon Kabat-Zinn, Vidyamala Burch and Risa Kaparo to whom this work is dedicated, you will encounter a noble expression of somatic intelli gence for pain management. Mindfulness-integrated CBT, as presented by Bruno Cayoun with great clarity and insight, has given a great deal of depth and direction to my personal practice and has equipped me to The co-emergent model of reinforcement is presented as follows: this model posits that reinforcement is dependent upon learned reactions towards intrinsically coupled cognitions and body sensations. In accord ance with the Eastern conceptualization of mind and connectivist models of information processing, associations stored in the memory can mani ATIC PSYCHOLOGY IN HISTOR ICAL PERSPECTI intelligence but also of Gardners argumentation and hesitation on the topic of moral intelligence. I have made a clear and comprehensive attempt in the present book to acknowledge in a specic chapter what the Jewish philosopher, Spinoza, referred to as human bondage to the The impotence of man to govern or restrain the emotions I call bondage, for a man who is under their control is not his own master, but is mastered by fortune, in whose power he is, so that he is often forced to follow the the fresh breeze that is owing into this study from the emerging eld of moral psychology. ATIC PSYCHOLOGY IN HISTOR ICAL PERSPECTI somatic learning helped her to lift herself from the half-lit drift and small OTES Barnaby B. Barratt, 2013, The Emergence of Barratt ( Risa F. Kaparo, 2012, Awakening : The Art and , North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, CA. Howard Gardner, 1993, Frames of Mind: The Theory of , Fontana Press, London. Gardner ( Kaparo, 2012, Awakening Somatic Intelligence: The Art and Practice of na: The Direct Path to Realization , Windhorse Francisco Varela, Evan Thompson and Eleanor Rosch, 1999, , MIT Press, Descartes Error: Reason and the Human Brain Putnam, New York. , Norton, New York. Richard Davidson, 2013, The Emotional Life of Your Brain , Hodder, Prinz ( ATIC PSYCHOLOGY IN HISTOR ICAL PERSPECTI The Emotional Brain , Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Bruno Cayoun, 2011, Integrated C.B.T ., Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 2141. Siegel ( EFERENCES layo. (2003). na: The direct path to realization . Cambridge: Windhorse Publications. Barratt, B. B. (2013). The emergence of somatic psychology and bodymind therapy (pp. 2141). Oxford: Wiley- Descartes error: Reason and the human brain . New York: Darwin, C. (1998). The expression of emotions in man and animals, with commen tary by Paul Ekman (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. . London: Hodder. de Silva, P. (2014). the Emotions: Anger, Carroll Izard, a pioneer in emotion studies, considered anger, disgust and contempt as the hostility triad and this chapter has a focus ODY IND ELATIONS While this study will have a focus on feelings, emotions and thought pat terns, I am especially concerned with relations some and unwholesome emotions. In fact, somatic intelligence refers to . At another level, more deeply, when a meditator has achieved to notice any messages verging on (mind). Furthermore, sharp NGER (sermons of the Buddha) is one of the roots of unwholesome behaviour ( is described in Buddhist sermons as follows: when the eye that is internal interacts with material shapes, there is sensory impingement: feelings arise because of sensory impingement, feelings, conditions, desires/craving and thought patterns which give way to clinging, dispositional, intentional HEMATIC TRANDS OF D ISGUST These are described by William Miller thus: The Scent of Desire, a collection of literature on dis gust, is a fascinating study which I picked up from a roadside bookshop: THICAL ATEGORIES Haidt also refers to obsessive rituals for cleansing sin/wrongs and calls ONVERTING ISGUST INTO IRITUAL XERCISE At the contemplative level, the mortality, dissolution and decay to which practice. The term may be translated as disgust, revulsion or EGATIVE ERSIONS OF A SU HA B VAN The Venerable Dhammajiva Mahathero says: An overemphasis of repulsiveness could lead to loathing which could manifest as an expression of frustrated desire. The discourses recollect an NEGATIVE VERSIONS OF ASUBHA BHA VANA example of excessive contemplation of the anatomical parts of the body. After the Buddha had instructed a group of monks on this practice and NTEROCE TION The sixth sense in neurology or non-sensory intuition ( ) is described by the term interoception: motion, the tension or relaxation in our muscles, the state of our internal milieu, including our organs as lungs, hearts and intestines. These bodily aspects of potential awareness serve as a deep source of intuition and shape Siegel also says that, the hormonal state of our body, the tensions of the notion that physiological changes in the body have linkages not merely to fear and anger but also to positive meditative experience is a crucial of emotional experience: its role in emotions will be taken up in the chapter on Darwin and James. It has of course been observed that, In meditation and relaxation the calming effects are achieved by means of feedback from the body. The rhythmic breathing and the relaxed state In clinical psychology, according to Yana Suchy, the value of intero ceptive awareness is receiving a great deal of attention from psychologists concerned with mental health (Suchy Thus, it is important that in the higher reaches of the mind, in insight meditation, the tranquiliza tion of the breath leads to joy ( ) and tranquillity ( ISGUST AND C ONTEM tempt is focussed towards the exclusion of another person or group. gust, I shall be brief about the nature of contempt. Contempt involves a judgement that because of some moral or impersonal standard, the person who makes the judgement considers the object as worthless. It that the other person is inferior. Though there is an outward expres sion of indifference in the person displaying his contempt to others, the ROM ISENCHANTMENT TO D ISSONANCE The renunciation of Prince Siddh rtha is a paradigmatic example of the ): the emotional cluster of oppres sive shock of dismay and alienation, realizing the futility and meaning lessness of life as it is normally lived, with an anxious sense of urgency in trying to nd a way out of the circle (Thanissaro ONCLUDING HOUGHTS ON THE B ODY OME PP ARENT P ARADOXES My recent work on pain management is focussed on what is described as text, we consider the body as a veritable treasure house. Somatic learning can be used as a skilful means to transform pain, trauma and some of the physical bliss and rapture captured in the NTEROCE TION AND THE MOTIONS One of the most important concepts that we take from this chapter to the next and beyond, is the Buddhist perspective on interoception or , Yana Suchy denes the concept as follows: awareness OTES Carroll Izard, 1977, , Plenum Press, New York, p. 377. Padmasiri de Silva, 2010, Mental Balance and Four Dimensions of Wellbeing Volume, Bangkok, pp. 657672. William Miller, 1997, , Harvard University Press, Miller ( The Scent of Desire , Harper Collins, New York, p. 4. Aurel Kolnai, 2004, , Open Court, Chicago, IL, p. 63. Soren Kierkegaard, 1937, , vol. 1, trans. by D. F. and L. M. Swenson, Anchor Press, New York, pp. 4345; see, Padmasiri de Silva, Explorers of Inner Space: Buddha, Krishnamurti and Kierkegaard Vishvalekha Publishers, Ratmalana, Sri Lanka, pp. 84109. Ibid., 87. Ibid., 92. Miller ( Padmasiri de Silva, 2012, The Lost Art of Sadness, in Kathleen Higgins and David Sherman, eds, Robert Solomon , Springer, Heidelberg, New York and London. , Penguin Books, New York, EFERENCES layo. (2003). na: The direct path to realization . Cambridge: Windhorse Publications. layo. (2010). na: The direct path to realization . Cambridge: Windhorse Publications. Appiah, K. (2008). Suchy, Y. (2011). . New York: The Guildford Press. nissaro Bhikkhu. (1999). BodyMind Managing Negative Emotions: The initial challenge in the use of mindfulness is not to suppress or oppose destructive mental states but to see their emergence, the arising and passing away. The obstruc tions to this process are many and need reective and deep contempla tive insights. Recent research in neuroscience has presented three kinds of contemplative experience: focussed attention on the in-and-out breathing Mindfulness or open-monitoring meditation is the awareness of internal bodily sensations, thoughts and emotions. This kind reactive awareness to emotion, thoughts and sensations occur ring in the present moment, to prevent them from spiralling out of control and creating mental distress. Expert meditators have ANAGING EGATIVE MOTIONS I rst summarize six perspectives for managing negative emotions and then shift to a more concentrated analysis of the central theme of this chapter. Anger is a paradigmatic negative emotion. Buddhists and psychol ogists accept the thesis that emotions strongly inuence our lives: some emotions are afictive and others non-afictive. The afictive negative emotions like anger are reactive. Some ingrained states are more sticky and restrictive, locking us into old patterns of neural ring, tying us to previously learned information and priming us to react in rigid ways. Non- press or repress such destructive mental states, but rather to identify with diligence the rise and experience of these states, creating an open The Buddha says, see anger as anger and lust as lust, without judge ment and self-identication, as in guilt and remorse; develop curiosity and tolerance. The emphasizes the following: not to oppose unwholesome states but to be receptively aware and to recognize the states of mind; not to ignore those that go against your ego, and not to use deception ( vacaka dhamma ). As you identify the ve hindrances, be aware of the subliminal states of anger ( emotional reactivity. In fact, if you look closely at the ve hindrances there is a component of aversion in almost all of them: sensuous desire, ill-will, boredom and slothfulness, restlessness and sceptical doubt (see invisible enemy. The nine forms of anger are also given consideration. we develop our meditative sittings and rene our consciousness, we move into a form of consciousness that is not related to the senses (Dhammajiva Neurologist Daniel Siegel describes this experience as interocep tion (Siegel When you are immersed in observing the in-breath and the out-breath, the focus is on the draught of air (rather than the breath). Basically, the draught will touch the area surrounding the nose or the lips/the point of touch (solidity): the point where one rubs the nose/ lips (ignition); and the various points where saliva touches the lips (liquidity). Another explanation is that the water element represents compactness. The whole process is seen in terms of the four elements and soon emerges as patterns of vibrations: for instance, degrees of tight ness, looseness, expansion and contraction, hot and cold temperature, involves the capacity to regulate negative emotions and to decrease the duration of the negative affect once it arises: and also the capacity to maintain a high level of positive affect. Basically, the emergence of con templative neuroscience has opened a new window to develop a concept The fourth strand comes from I refer to the A delements, such as thoughts of lust and restlessness, is similar. One should face them squarely, but distinguish them from ones reactions to them, e.g. fear, resentment, irritation. Venerable Nyanaponika quotes a by men, and consider how and in what way they may best be repelled by generosity (Spinoza to others, as pride may emerge in virtuous people. The most important EN AND E MOTIONS Zen Buddhism is a large reservoir of apparently disconnected insights with an underlying unity. Zen masters turn things upside down and unify when wisdom emerges, as was evident in the Zen-like prole of the leg endary Thai monk, Ajahn Chah, who said that you need a transparent but our actions should not be mixed with desire. They should be per REJUDICES OF SYCHOLOGISTS AND HILOSO HERS Having presented six strands in the management of afictive negative emotions, the central focus of this part of the study is embodied emo tions and bodymind reactivity, using anger as a paradigmatic emotion. refer to as contemplative emotions. This analysis is presented against the outstanding fabric of the Buddhist and Pali culture in Myanmar, to indi cate and emphasize the value of the inexhaustible wellspring that is the . Renewed interest today in Buddhist meditation practice, in the context of recent trends in Western psychotherapies, cognitive sci as an unwholesome root; a as subliminal angerat the level of morality. But, in the meditation sitting there is a contextual changewhere anger is neither good nor bad, neither yours nor mine, and it is a process which emerges, stays for a while and then passes away. As I have already claried, in , the meditator makes , as in Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) the meditator becomes aware of the thought processes, the thought components of the emotion and the autopilot pro one puts on the breaks, at the initial emergence of disagreeable feelings ( SSUES OUT ELF ONTROL AND M INDFULNESS Like Aronson, Flanagan and Engler, Simon Blackburn, a philosopher of good standing and an expert on emotion studies, whose skills we recog Emotions that threaten self-control, such as panic or, anger, or grief or lust, are the enemies, but stoic self-command enables us to overcome ULTURAL P ERS ECTIVES ON N EGATIVE MOTIONS UILT AND S HAME Compared to anger, guilt and shame are more interesting from a cross- cultural perspective. Ajahn Sumedho, though a Westerner, has made Thailand a kind of home. He presents a stimulating reection on guilt and shame, and tendencies towards negativity: It is interesting that there are now all kinds of stress reduction pro Against this background, Ajahn Sumedho argues that in the Western world people have a lot of problems about guilt. In the West, people feel guilty all the time and this is very much a cultural tendency we have, but in Thailand, where he lived for many years, not many people have ODIED MOTIONS AND W ILLIAM AMES The subject of embodied emotion has received much attention in con temporary trends and discussions in Western psychology, philosophy and neurology. The subject illuminates the thematic thrust of the pre sent chapter, in so far as we moved across to issues pertaining to body reactivity. There is a remarkably insightful harvest on the subject about which much has been written in recent years. The most outstanding con tributions are those of the psychologist/neurologist LeDoux ( who skilfully blends research into mindfulness practice and neuroscience. In the background is the revival of interest in two of the central claims of William James, coming from two directions. James ( theory ILLIAM AMES ON M INDFULNESS In the chapter devoted to James and Darwin, I discuss Damasios modi cation of Jamesian theory. Now, however, I wish to cite another of William James obviously didnt know about the practice of mindfulness when he penned this passage. But I am sure he would have been delighted to have discovered that there was indeed an education for improving Buddhist practitioners have developed into a ne art over a millennium, of Psychology ), James introduced an interesting rider: Common OTES Mattieu Ricard, Antoine Lutz and Richard Davidson, 2014, Mind of the Davidson ( Spinoza ( Ibid., 261. Ibid., 262. Working with Emotions , trans. from EFERENCES Being dharma Ajahn Sumedho. (2012). Guilt and tendencies towards negativity. https://buddhismnow.com/2012/10/13/guilt-tendencies-negativity- layo. (2010). na: The direct path to realization . Cambridge: Windhorse Publications. Aaronson, H. (2004). Buddhist practice on western grounds Blackburn, S. (2004). . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Damasio, A. (2000). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotions in the mak . London: Vintage. . London: Hodder. Dhammajiva Mahathero. (2008). . Mitirigala: Mitirigala Forest Hermitage Publications. (p. 44). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ricard, M., Lutz, A., & Davidson, R. (2014). Mind of the meditator. . New York: Norton. Varela, F., Thompson, E., & Rosch, E. (1999). . London: MIT Press. P. de Silva, Traditional sensory neuropsychology that dominated pain PAIN MANAGEMENT AND SOMATIC INTELLIGENCE Joanna Bourkes recent book, The Story of Pain: From Prayers to observes that pain is not an objective entity PAIN MANAGEMENT AND SOMATIC INTELLIGENCE Rather than equating mental processes with behavioural dispositions, cognitive psychologists and neuroscientists now equate them with neural processes and their functions (Wallace losophy of mind, however, the old framework dominated by behaviour ism still existed, and for them as Lyons says, Reference to consciousness and the interior life was taboo (Lyons behaviourism is clearly seen in their weak analysis of emotions. Firstly, it was externalism with its close relative, virulent anticentralism that began to reveal the aws in the behaviourist model of mind. Their tool box did not allow them to give sufcient explanation to all aspects of our mental life. Secondly, their attempt to explain emotions, in terms of dis position, did not account for different emotions like anger, irascibility and affection. An angry man may pound the table, slam the door or pick a ght but there are lots of other things an angry man is predisposed to do, depending on his gender, age, education and social status. Now it is accepted that different cognitions in addition to colouring our emo tions also colour our behaviour. The emergence of cognitive psychology and the new neuroscience gradually presented an ideal background for the emergence of what Alan Wallace described as contemplative science (de Silva Thus, within these changing perspective towards the emergence of contemplative that Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) was a child of these changing visions of the art of generating a new science of the study of consciousness. Writing in 2007, Wallace made the following observation: James further speculated that the stream of consciousness may be a dif ferent type of phenomenon than the brain, one that interacts with the PAIN MANAGEMENT AND SOMATIC INTELLIGENCE HILOSO HICAL P ERS ECTIVES ON AIN ANAGEMENT The traditional sensory neurophysiology that dominated pain research ERS ECTI FOR AIN M ANAGEMENT : OUR OUNDATIONS OF M INDFULNESS Our relationship to emotional pain is a key factor in how much we suffer. For example, in the latest wave of MBCT there is the understanding that trying to change our thoughts/thought patterns directly is less effective than creating a space for our experiencea less resistant, less avoidant relationship to our thoughts and feelings. This view is expressed in the MBCT maxim: thoughts are thoughts, not facts. Thus opening and creating a space is important. The second strand is acceptance: curiosity, tolerance, willingness and the ability to embrace pain with friendship, as presented in the acceptance and commitment examples, which may be applied to both mastering meditation and pain management. We have a number of subliminal tendencies of which the most important is anger ( ). If, after doing well, one day you do badly, you may think that you are a failure in general: not only in concentration. This might also generate some guilt and moral anger towards your own self which is fed by subliminal anger. If you have an ) may emerge. Deceptions often emerge in terms of the ve hindrances: desire, aversion, E FOR PA NAGEMENT: FOUR FOUNDATIONS OF MINDFULNESS PAIN MANAGEMENT AND SOMATIC INTELLIGENCE sloth and torpor, restlessness, worry and sceptical doubt. Sloth and tor por provide an ideal example, which may be applied to the practice of mindfulness or pain management (where a person develops a defeatist This is not merely the feeling of sleepiness, but rather the deeper pat tern or tendency to, of withdrawing from difculties. This is the habit HR EE CONS OF AIN M NAGEMENT : K AT -Z INN IDYA MA LA B URCH ND K RO Firstly, I have now given a perspective on the emergence of contemplative science as providing a background to mindfulness-based treatment for the management of pain. Trauma is the subject of the next chapter. Secondly, I have illustrated how the techniques developed in MBCT have authentic roots in the sleeping and so on. When every time the pain breaks back into your experience you reach for more you are spinning in the hamster wheel PAIN MANAGEMENT AND SOMATIC INTELLIGENCE management. Howard Gardner did not include a moral dimension and an existential dimension to his overall theory. The present work makes some amends for this deciency. Vidyamala Burch suffered from chronic back pain for over 30 years due to congenital weakness, a car accident, and multiple surgeries. what she called the wisdom of the bodysomatic intelligence. It is strange that while being nourished by the wellspring of deep mysticism, she also integrated current research in psychology: neuroscience and the neuro plasticity thesis, embodied mindfulness, the idea of a sixth sense, and the concept of interoception into her concept of somatic intelligence. Kaparo had great innovative power. She also had the ability to ride through challenging times. Although her book did not show any direct inuence from the philosophical and therapeutic perspectives of Mark Williams and Jon Kabat-Zinn, she added with great ingenuity her own programme which received recognition around the world. In contrast, Risa Kaparo was a genius for understanding the language of the body and offering an innovative manual for healing pain and awakening the consciousness and spirit of her clients. It is not often that in the history of healing therapies, we come across someone who blended insights drawn from the wellsprings of traditional mysticism and spirituality with the fundamental ndings of contemporary science. She says that in order to make the process of change less esoteric and knowable ferentiation, precensing, proprioception, interoception, neuroplasticity, learning and habituation cycles will provide a conceptual basis for utiliz ing the practices in the book (Kaparo 2012, 19). In my own work, , I have related the concepts of embodied emotions, the sixth sense, and interoception in the context of neuro PAIN MANAGEMENT AND SOMATIC INTELLIGENCE Jon Kabat-Zinns early beginnings lay in the establishment of the Stress OTES Mark Williams, 2013, Foreword, Vidyamala Burch and Danny Penman, The Story of Pain: From Prayers to Painkillers Oxford University Press, Oxford. Patrick Wall and Ronald Melzack, 1982, B. Alan Wallace, 2007, , Columbia University Press, New York. Ibid., 55. William Lyons, 2001, , Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, p. 63. Wallace (2007, 13). Publishers, Wollombi, NSW, p. 132. Christopher Germer, 2009, Guilford Press, London. Germer ( Joseph Goldstein, 2013, , Sounds True, Boulder, CA, p. 142. Ibid., 143. Vidyamala Burch, 2013/2008, Living Well with Pain and Illness , Piatkus, Amanda C. de Williams, 2013, foreword, in Vidyamala Burch, Well with Pain and Illness Kaparo (2012, 23). Ibid., 19. Mark Williams and Jon Kabat-Zinn, 2013, London and New York, pp. 117. Jon Kabat-Zinn, 1990, , Dell, New York. Williams and Kabat-Zinn ( EFERENCES The story of pain: From prayers to painkillers . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Burch, V. (2013/2008). de Silva, P. (2014). de Williams, A. C. (2013). Foreword. In V. Burch, Germer, C. (2009). . London: Guilford Press. . Boulder, CO: Sounds True. . New York: Dell. PAIN MANAGEMENT AND SOMATIC INTELLIGENCE Kaparo, R. F. (2012). Awakening somatic intelligence: The art and practice of . Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. Lyons, W. (2001). . Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Mindfulness for life . Wollombi, NSW: Exisle Wall, P., & Melzack, R. (1982). Wallace, B. A. (2007). . New York: Columbia University Press. Williams, M. (2013). Foreword. In V. Burch & D. Penman, Williams, M., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). . London and New York: Trauma Management Today, issues pertaining to traumatology have received a great deal of attention across the world and the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) has been at the centre of useful projects. The reason for this wide concern is that the category of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has widened with large numbers coming under sexual assault; being held hostage; the impact of natural disasters, refugees in large numbers, asylum seekers with women and children and victims of armed conict. For those interested in the important therapeutic and research that has been done, there are two important works. PAIN AND TRAUMA MANAGEMENT conict; and people being thrown out of their homes. One specic exam ANDING THE IELD OF T RAUMATOLOGY Trauma, which means wound in Greek, is often the result of an overwhelming amount of stress that exceeds ones ability to cope with or integrate the emotions related to an experience. It is also said that with the brain of the traumatized person that is central to this study. The treatment attempts to integrate the body and mind. In what follows, PAIN AND TRAUMA MANAGEMENT and devotional experience. The therapist needs to have such skills and INDFULNESS P RACTICE FOR T RAUMA During the time that Rothschild wrote on the psychophysiology of trauma, the use of mindfulness had hardly entered the eld of body therapies. Today, there are several psychotherapeutic orientations using mindfulness-based interventions. Following the comprehensive study of mindfulness-based pain management with a special focus on the emo , I present some thematic strands from a presentation I made at the conference in Thailand: Buddhism and the World Crisis (de Silva oped a mindfulness-based, emotion-focussed therapy (EFT) in areas like anger management and addictions. I have also investigated the research on pain and emotions (Chap. ). At the Thailand conference, however, I explored the emerging work on mindfulness-based trauma manage ment. As the conference was sponsored by the United Nations (UN), I briey referred to some work on eco-social humanitarian care, pain and trauma management, and the National Centre for PTSD: The potential clinical utility of integrating mindfulness-based exercises Trauma , Pat Ogden and her colleagues offer us deep experiential insights that can awaken our minds to the wisdom of the body. By turning towards the body with mindful awareness of here-and-now sensory experience, the pathways to integration are opened and healing becomes possible. This receptive awareness involves an accepting, lov ing, non-judgmental attention that may be the essence of how the mind can move from chaos and rigidity in non-integrated states to the coher ent functioning that emerges with integration. Mindful awareness of the body enables the individual to move directly into previously warded-off following acute or chronic traumatisation. (Siegel approach spanning thousands of years. Somehow, in modern times, we have forgotten the hard-earned wisdom of the ancient traditions. Modern neural science clearly points to the central role of the body in the creation OTES Padmasiri de Silva, 2015, New Dimensions for Humanitarian Care: A Project on Mindfulness-Based Pain Management Education, in Buddhism and World Crisis, 12th United Nations Day of Vesak Conference Bangkok, 2015, Proceedings. EFERENCES de Silva, P. (2015). New dimensions for Humanitarian care: A project on mind World Crisis, 12th United Nations Day of Vesak Conference, Bangkok Ogden, P., Minton, K., & Clare, P. (2006). Trauma and the body . London: Norton. The body remembers . London: Norton. . New York: Norton. Emotion Studies: Darwin, James and Freud It was Ekman (Emotions revealed, St. Martins Press, New York, ) who re-discovered the work of Darwin as a contribution to emotion studies. He expanded the area of research to produce a facial The Dalai Lama on Buddhist pathways for managing negative emotions. Darwins classic work, The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals has remained one of the classics of all time and the legacy was received by William James who inherited a strong Darwinian avour in his rev olutionary analysis of emotions. Darwins thesis on emotions was the product of an evolutionary perspective, and the book was on animal behaviour. Sigmund Freuds contribution, in contrast, is described as an ideogenic revolution as different from a somatic perspective. This chapter is a central chapter of the present book, as it presents two HARLES ARWIN ONTRI UTION TO O UR NDERSTANDING OF E MOTIONAL RESSION into this remarkable somatic heritage descending from Darwin and James, and more recently, Damasio. Darwin used photographs and engravings, taking for granted that he could obtain the much needed information when the emotion was dis played. According to Ekman, facial expression begins and then reaches an apex of the maximum muscular contraction that is going to occur. during the apex. Any time slice within that apex carries information about which emotion is signalledthese are snapshot expressions that are different from aggregate signalswhich incorporate a sequence of expressions. The extent of the muscular contraction provides information about the intensity of the emotion signalled. Another important point about what are called the basic emotions is that the facial expressions of these emotions are universal/pan-cultural. Basic emotions include sadness, happiness, anger, fear, wonder and disgust. Emotions are also depicted in the life of animals. Darwin has a comprehensive coverage of Emotions like, guilt, shame, pride, jealousy and envy have different cog ULTURE ECIFIC MOTIONS In our East-West Centre projects, we also explored culture-specic emotions. I have published my Sri Lankan emotion taxonomy, collected in Sinhalese: happiness, greed, affection/kindness, anger, sadness, fear, disgust, desolation, excitement, surprise, pride, sensuality, serenity and has emerged, though it was difcult to nd a word for guilt. The emo tion stories, which were gathered within a project on attempted suicide, indicated shame as a typical Sri Lankan emotion in the villages. There was a rich anger-related taxonomy of ten words. There were also cer is a Pali word covering both jealousy and envy and the Sinhala word was close to this usage. It was only in the Abhidhammic vocabulary that I found the word macchariya for envy, which is hardly used at all in ordinary conversation. Usage in English has also not found a clearcut distinction: Both the O.E.D. and Websters explore this concern, though in the present book, I have not gone deeply In terms of the history of a species, particular movements signal par ticular emotions. In dogs, the raised upper lip indicates the expression of anger. Darwin described this feature as due to it having been a servicea Later, they assembled all these combinations and produced the Facial HE ALAI AMA AND AUL KMAN ON M ANAGING FFLICTIVE MOTIONS Ekman started off the dialogue by rst describing the nature of There is a signal, an automatic and a very quick appraisal of what is hap ILLIAM AMES AND THE OMATIC HEORY OF E MOTIONS Jamess indebtedness to Darwin is seen in his reference to Darwins listing of the emotions of fear and hatred. Darwin describes hatred as WILLIAM JAMES AND THE SOMATIC THEORY OF EMOTIONS Withdrawal of the head backwards, withdrawal of the trunk; projection forwards of the hands, as if to defend oneself against the hated object; contraction or closure of the eyes; elevation of the upper lip and clo sure of the nose these are all elementary movements of turning away. Next, threatening movements, as: intense frowning; eyes wide open; try to abstract from our consciousness of it all the feelings of its char acteristic bodily symptoms, we nd we have nothing left behind, no mind-stuff out of which the emotions can be constituted and that cold and neutral state of intellectual perception is all that remains Then there is the appeal to parsimony. We do not have to postulate another faculty to explain and know that the mind can register bodily changes. If emotions are constituted by such mental states, we do not need to use another faculty to explain the emergence Voluntary changes of bodily states can have an impact on emotions. Paul Ekman had a similar argument with more rened use of experi by deliberately assuming the appearance of an emotion may occur, though that is not the way we usually express emotions (Ekman experienced emotions without an identiable cognitive factor. Fear of spiders, knowing that they are harmless is a good example of the emo RITICAL VALUATION OF J AMES First, I cite a number of criticisms that have been presented and then make a short evaluation from the perspective of the application of lent work on the life and work of William James, says: If James had own. The neglect of the cognitive dimension of emotions has been a fre quent criticism. There also appears to be an illicit logic from the position emotions are caused by the bodily symptoms of emotions. In recent times, Dylan Evans in a very insightful analysis of Jamess discussion of emotions has observed: IGMUND EUD ND THE DEOGENIC EVOLUTION John Deigh who has written the rst chapter to an anthology deal ing with contemporary philosophers on emotions ( observes: Jamess ideas are the source of the view that one can fruitfully study emotions by studying the neurophysiological processes that occur with neurophysiological processes. He identied them with feelings. (Deigh Freuds ideas are the source of the view that emotions transmit meaning Freud often described emotions as ows of nervous energy, his view of Alasdair MacIntyre sums up the extent of Freuds ideogenic revolution: Freuds is not an explanation simply of the abnormal but also of the nor mal and exceptional. The scope in principle of Freudian explanation is all human behaviour; had it been less than this Freud would have been unable UDDHIST INDFULNESS AND F EUD P SYCHOA NALYSIS Mark Epstein says that in popular imagination, Freuds work is associ Freuds work went through a number of phases or strands ranging from the deeply buried unconscious to the ever-present subliminal levels: (i) the rst is the cathartic view, when he used hypnotism for re-enact ing and re-living traumatic incidents; (ii) the second was when he gave REUD ON T HREE DEOGENIC P ASSIONS : EALOUSY , NXIETY AND M ELANCHOLY held the object, I shall be affected with hatred toward the beloved object Jerome Neu, in referring to these insightful passages on jealousy ( refers to the fact that its internal complexity of the emotion is instructive and also that the conceptual surroundings are rich, with a wealth of discriminations such as envy, resentment, begrudging, malice, spite ill-will, hatred, ingratitude, revenge, hostility and so on. The article by Jerome Neu, Jealous Thoughts, and by Leila Tov-Ruach, Jealousy, Attention and Loss, in the anthology, Explaining Emotions (Tov-Ruach are two fascinating studies. I shall select only the central points for discussion, leaving interested readers to probe the subject further. Attempting a short review of Neu rst: the presence and persistence of jealousy have more to do with self-identity than with the possession of forms of jealousy, it is important to note that jealousy may be on many occasions tied to genuine love; the same difculties do not emerge with for instance social reformers who wish to deal with envy; and we also UDDHIST P ERS ECTIVES ON E NVY AND J EALOUSY happiness of other. This denition comes close to the emotion of envy. ated with the Pali word means wishing that the other person not prosper. Stinginess is just attachment to money and property and is merely (greed), but envy does not want another person or even group of persons to have wealth, houses, money and fame, rich relatives; to having a reputation as a donor to the temple. It extends even to envy of those with learning and beauty. In Buddhist parlance, the term often used to cover both jealousy and envy but there is an important dif ference. The subject of envy has been described as malice that cannot DENTITY SSUES IN UDDHISM It is of great interest that Freud gradually came to recognize that the ego threat to life, that we cannot conceive how the ego can consent to its own destruction. (Freud and Breuer According to Jacobson, when we probe Identity Problems in Buddhist EUD ON THE IDDLE OF A NXIETY questions converge. A good example is mourning. Freud was concerned OUR NING ND M ELANCHOLIA On mourning and melancholia Freud says the following Although grief involves grave departures from the normal attitude to life, it never occurs to us to regard it as a morbid condition and hand the mourner over to medical treatment. We rest assured that after a lapse of time it will be overcome, and we regard any interference with it as inadvis able and even harmful. ( This point is taken up by Horowitz and Wakeeld who say: Sadness is an inherent part of the human condition, not a mental disor der. Thus to confront psychiatrys invalid denition of a depressive disor der is also to consider a painful but an important part of our humanity that we have tended to shunt outside in the modern medicalization of human problems. As science allows us to gain more control over our emotional observed two faces of depression, one as a clinical disorder, and the other rected. Michael Ignatieff calls this a lost paradigm (Ignatieff The existential therapy of Irwin D. Yalom absorbs this perspective to therapy. He integrates the voices of Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Kafka and Camus. Thus, apart from his solid contribution to understand ing sadness, Freuds thinking on melancholy stands at the crossroads of Lewis Wolpert also says that when sadness is mishandled, it becomes malignant sadness and opens the door to severe depression (Wolpert Psychiatrist, Maurice Drury, makes the following com ments, drawing attention to the parallel lines of thinking in Freud and Freud showed real profundity when he stated that the aim of psychoa nalysis was to replace neurotic unhappiness by normal unhappiness. A OTES Awareness New York, p. 5. Charles Darwin, 2015, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and , Harper Collins, London (Darwin St. Martins Press, New York. , Vintage, London. Ekman ( Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy, 189, pp. 2533. , Oxford University Press, New York, p. 3. Ekman ( Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking Gladwell ( Ekman ( Darwin, quoted in James ( Ibid, 446. James ( James ( Prinz ( James ( Ekman ( Myers, 1987, William James: His Life and Thought, Yale University Press, Sigmund Freud and Joseph Breuer, 1953, Studies in Hysteria, in M.O.C. Drury, 1973, Words, Routledge and Kegan Paul, Freud and Breuer ( EFERENCES Gladwell, M. (2005). Blink: The power of thinking without thinking Horowitz, A., & Wakeeld, J. (2007). . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ignatieff, M. (1987, September 4). Paradigm lost. Times Literary Supplement, Jacobson, N. P. (1966). Buddhism: The religion of analysis Press. James, W. (1884). What is an emotion? Lange, C. (1885). One leuds beveegelser. In K. Dunlap (Ed.), Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. . London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. . London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. MacIntyre, A. (1958). The unconscious: A conceptual analysis. In R. F. Holland William James: His life and thought . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Neu, J. (1980). Jealous thoughts. In A. O. Rorty (Ed.), Berkeley: University of California Press. Gut reactions: A perceptual theory of emotions . New York: Oxford University Press. . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Tov-Ruach, L. (1980). Jealousy, attention and loss. In A. O. Rorty (Ed.), Berkeley: University of California Press. Wolpert, L. (1999). Malignant sadness: The anatomy of depression and Faber. P. de Silva, Self-control is the virtue of living according to a persons accepted age and persistence. Lack of self-control is described as weakness of will. ATIC PASSIONS him to seek the gratications. Hence the incontinent man can readily be persuaded to change his behavior but not the other. For virtue preserves, while vice destroys that intuitive preservation of the true end of life which is the starting point in conduct. (Aristotle THICAL R EA LISM AND E IR ICAL P SYCHOLOGY Professor Premasiri made one of the signicant contributions to Buddhist ATIC PASSIONS UILDING B LOCKS IN THE NFOLDING OF A ATIC B EHAVIOUR In addition to the relation of sensory perception to , Cayoun as a therapist inspired by mindfulness techniques, says that objective awareness of body sensations is a central part of therapy : where we learn to see them without reaction and thought components. Body sen sations are the building blocks of emotions: variation in sensuous desire, craving for alcohol, anger, fear or sadness. There is also a craving for what we do not have as well as a more silent craving related to what we do not want such as unpleasant body sensations and feelings consequent on excessive addictions or sexuality. Aristotle did not see this point, as he did not wish to recognize the reactivity and importance of anger: research has shown that much of the voluntary self-destructive behav iour in knowingly courting disaster in addictions is due to the craving to avoid (aversion). Withdrawing from an addictive drug is greatly desired but it causes misery: it is a two-edged issue. There is a silent masochistic strand in extreme addicts of alcohol and excessive sexual addicts. Cayoun says that there are unproductive ways in which people seek happiness, that are attached to immediate pleasures ( He presents an insightful four-stage path for recovery: increase aware ness of body sensations in an objective way; increase sensory perception without judgements; decrease evaluation; and decrease reaction. Body sensations are the consequence of our evaluative thoughts, and in the NTRODUCTION TO M OR EA NESS A puzzle about the nature of moral weakness ( ) emerged in the Greek philosophical scene within the philosophies of Socrates, Plato and . In ordi nary language, we are speaking about temptations, mostly associated with the body like smoking, alcohol and drug consumption, food addic tions, excessive and irresponsible sexual behaviour, and also others like gambling and addictions. Loss of temper in sudden impulsive anger is a kind of weakness in Buddhist moral psychology. Although Aristotle clas sied greed and lust as moral weaknesses that had to be condemned he did not classify anger in this category and even made a case for righteous moral anger. We conclude that it is more disgraceful to yield to desire than to anger; now anger and bad temper are commoner human frail ties than desire for excessive and unnecessary pleasures (Aristotle In the context of the ve precepts for basic morality, Buddhism is focussed on sexual abuse and the use of alcohol/drugs, lying/lack of transparency and stealing and killing. Being transparent to oneself and others is as important as that acceptance of wrongdoing is the rst path towards reform. In fact, Aristotle says that incontinence where a man is HE B ODY ND M OR AL XITY IN A DDICTIONS Another very important point in the light of my current research is that a greater number of these moral failures are related to the body. I nd my research on somatic intelligence (wisdom of the body) relevant to issues concerning moral weakness. Christine Caldwell, the body-centred We threaten our lives when we introduce large amounts of toxicity into our bodies. We damage our lives when we practice addictions that cause ATIC PASSIONS Bruno Cayoun, in a masterly analysis of the paths of human wellbeing, says that (i) body sensations are neither physical nor purely mental and Vipassan practice provides a profound insight, regarding the linkage of tory patterns have been a constant focus in my regular meditation (fol lowing the teachings of Venerable Dhammajiva), and I am delighted that Cayoun says that there are four basic characteristics of these body sensations: mass: from the lightest to the heaviest; motion: from the most still to extremes of shaking, or agitation; temperature: from the coldest to the hottest experience; and uidity (also called cohesiveness): from the loosest and most diffuse to the most dense, most constricted , 109; Dhammajiva ISTOTLE AND THE OCR ATIC P LATONIC IEW OF K NOWLEDGE AS V IRTUE is a multi-layered experience. Self-control is the virtue of liv ing according to ones values in so far as one has the capacity to do so by exercising courage, persistence or simple discipline. Lack of self-control often takes the form of ATIC PASSIONS and self-aggression ( levels. Under normal conditions, Ruden says the Buddha had the most enlightened response, using the eight-fold path to avoid the conditioned responses of the brain that led to craving (Ruden but to prevent its unfolding patterns of craving, attachment and xation. Socrates presented the time-honoured puzzle and paradox that those who have genuine moral knowledge are bound to produce the genuine good conduct which is contained in the axiom virtue is knowledge. This appears as a paradox as there are many instances where people have his classic discussion of moral weakness (incontinence), he says that there are three qualities of character: vice, incontinence and bestiality. Aristotle deviated from the Socratic position in saying that the self-controlled Some thinkers maintain, that he cannot if he has full knowledge that the action is wrong. It is, as Socrates thought, hard to believe that, if a man really knows, and has the knowledge in his soul, it should be mastered ATIC PASSIONS Socrates to be sure was out and out opposed to the view that we are now criticizing, on the ground that there is no such thing as this moral weak what he is doing. He can only go wrong out of ignorance. (Aristotle Thus, Aristotle was emphasizing that cognitive awareness does not always offer a kind of motivational magic. When we come to Buddhism, it must be mentioned that both Socrates and Aristotle identied self-control with UDDHIST P ERS ECTIVES ON THE A ISTOTELIAN TA ND OINT Aristotle identies self-control with rationality. Mele, however, says that this is a very partial view and we need a more holistic perspective: I follow Aristotle in understanding self-control and help and hinder self-control: the practice of mindfulness, qualities of commitment, persistence in the face of adversity, ardency, presence of mind and goal-directed activity. Free will is important in Buddhism as a precondition, as intentional agency is central. These qualities of a multi dimensional nature cannot be subsumed under rationality though the image of reason as the charioteer and passions as the unruly horses was a clear Platonic inheritance to modern Western thought. Joseph LeDoux in his groundbreaking research said that some emo tions are triggered by perception rather than by : that uncon scious emotional processing leads to emotional experience. The Buddhist position is able to accommodate such hijacking of the normal cognitive processes by unconscious/subliminal emotional processing as I have ice and feelings of inferiority and the experience of jealousy. If there is a strand of anger in depression, such states are more difcult to handle compared with normal depression. On the motivational side, Buddhism emphasizes the arousing, upholding and exerting of ones intentions for the non-arising of evil ); abandoning them once they have emerged ( once they have emerged ( OMATIC karu by generous actions is a good ally to deal with the powerful grief conse is hard to cultivate but it is a good antidote to pacify the anger fed by envy and jealousy of others. In fact, delements may be converted which gures in diverse forms of rather than using reason or rationality. WO AYER ED B UDDHIST THICS ND D IFFER ENT EVELS OF S IR ITUA EV ELO MENT The presence of a higher order morality is clearly seen in the impor tance of the ve hindrances to the meditative life. Loss of self-control by factors of enlightenment ( s) do not deal with moral perfection. Buddhism, for instance, concerns itself with the emancipation from the bond of Worldly passions, and describes ve strategies of purication, essentially: having clear ideas, avoiding sensual desires by mind control, restricting objects to their natural uses, endurance, and watching out for temptation in advance. However, the ways that non-western religions a jumble from any operational viewpoint of trying to maximise a good. He also observes that nothing new has come from Buddhism regarding these problems. There are a number of critical points to be made. This ref erence is taken from B.D. Kyoki , The Teachings of the Buddha ( ATIC PASSIONS EA LING ITH THE INDRANCES AS OR OF M OR EA NESS The Buddha uses the image of clear water and when desires are present, it colours perception as if the pool were suffused with a coloured dye; when aversion is present, the water is seen as turbulence, caused by anger; when sloth and torpor are present, like a pool overgrown with algae; when restless and worry are present, like water stirred by the wind; when sceptical doubt is present, like muddy water. OCIAL IMENSIONS OF KR SI tions found in modern times did not exist. Today, in addition to personal counselling for addiction, there is a need for vibrant social discourse on the subject. Rorty ( The structure of the of anger differs from that of desire, but the explanation of its obduracy is similar. Both the of greed are typically dispositional rather than episodic and both express conicts among entrenched habits. is sustained and reinforced by socio-political and economic arrangements, patterns of are often a common form of social pathology. The most effective form of reform of lies in the reform of its epidemiological sourcesits socio-political and economic originsrather than the attempt to correct the immediate beliefs or desires that prompted individual cases. There is a diagnosis of the social roots of certainly necessary to make a critical assessment of advertising and commercial interests without a moral backbone. ONCLUDING HOUGHTS of sensuality and addictions that the Greek philosophers reected on, is an issue of importance that comes down Rorty refers to a greed is good culture where people fall a prey to many counterfeit forms of happiness, where attachment emotions of greed and reactive emotions of anger and boredom underlie a culture sepa rated from everything that is interesting in life, thats exhilarating in life, that is beautiful in life (Fromm I wish to emphasize that we need a recovery of the practice of mind fulness, an attentional stance: a concept succinctly described by Wallace and Shapiro ( They say, an and disengaged even from its internal processes. occurs when the mind is extensively aroused, resulting in compulsive dis tractions and fragmentation. when we focus on things in afictive ways, not conducive to our own or others well-being. Great meditation teachers like Joseph Goldstein and Jack Korneld are to energize life, enlarge the area of self-knowledge and convert the I would also emphasize the broader function of counselling educa tion. There is an urgent need for a healthy attentional stance, slowing from the hustle and buzz of hectic life to enjoy a movement of stillness. OTES Spinoza ( Aristotle, 1959, ATIC PASSIONS P. D. Premasiri, 2006, Amlie Rorty, 1997, Social and Political Sources of Akrasia, EFERENCES Breakdown of will Press. ATIC PASSIONS . Tokyo: Kosaido. Marlatt, A. (2002). Buddhist philosophy and the treatment of addictive behaviour. Martin, M. W. (2007). Everyday morality . Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Mele, A. R. (1996). Addiction and self-control. Premasiri, P. D. (2006). Studies in Buddhist philosophy and religion . Singapore: The Nature of Human Volition P. de Silva, Patrick Haggard says that in our routine lives, most adult human beings have a strong feeling for voluntary control over their actions, making choices and acting accordingly (Haggard ATURE ability to control ones sense desires or anger was crucial. This area of is an independent dimension that is different from cognition and affect In general, the lives of human beings are governed by the lawful nature of things ( ), the biological laws ( seasons ( ). When it comes to intentional activity, a blend of the psychological and moral laws pervades our activities, and in modern terms it is moral psychology that emerges in the process of evaluating moral psychology. The lives of both Vidyamala Burch and Risa Kaparo have been taken as icons of pain management and though they do not directly write on , Kabat-Zinn has described the concept of intentionality as: Committing yourself to goals that are in your own interest is easy. But keeping to the path that you have chosen when you run into difculties and may not see the results right away is the real measure of commit ment. This is where conscious intentionality comes, the intention to prac distinct subjective experiences that are absent from reexes: These are NTENTION IN UDDHISM Human life is geared and directed by decisions and plans. Often a vision and philosophy and all intentional activity is coloured by ones larger may grow into an interlinked organic whole. But for the moment spe ATURE there were three important elements that led to the Buddhas awaken ing to the riddle of human suffering or Prince Siddhatthas quest for awakening. First, his remembrance of previous lives showed that death OTES Kabat-Zinn ( Siegel ( Ibid., 178. Patrick Haggard, 2008, Human Volition: Towards a Neuroscience of Will, Bhikkhu Th nissaro, 1996, The Wings to Awakening Publications, Barre Center for Buddhist Studies, MA, p. 10. EFERENCES Bhikkhu Th nissaro. (1996). The wings to awakening . Barre Center for Buddhist Studies. Barre, MA: Dhammad Haggard, P. (2008). Human volition: Towards a neuroscience of will. (Vol. 9, p. 936). Macmillan. . New York: Dell. . New York: Norton. A Journey of Self-Awakening P. de Silva, Like in Chap. where an attempt was made look at the moral intelligence related somatic passions, in this chapter we look at a higher level of moral intelligence related to the ve hindrances ( These rules apply to those who accept higher A JOUR NEY OF SELF-AWA LOTH AND T OR OR , AND OR EDOM AS TTENTIONAL RISIS The Venerable Gunaratana offers the following reection on sloth and focus of this study is sloth and torpor fed by aversion. It is strange that a close look at the hindrances would reveal that forms of tical doubt. But boredom as a form of aversion is the central focus of the present study. ANAGING INDR ANCES Aversion for managing intruding thoughts is necessary. Gently bringing attention to the breath is recommended. As initial reactions come from the body, increased awareness of the body is very effective. Kindness to oneself is a way of dealing with self-anger. Aversion to physical pain calls for equa nimity without reaction. In sion is to take the mind to subtle levels of rapture and delight. It is also covers sloth and torpor as a hindrance, and boredom at the base as an entrenched feature of the human situation. desires arise because of unwise reection. The mind is seduced by temptations of the senses. This is the greatest hindrance to practice. Sense control, meditation on ugliness, decay and decomposition, moder ation with food, having a good friend and suitable talk are recommended by the teacher. In meditation, concentration and one- pointedness are the antidote. Other forms of craving are complex as they may be attached to things that are seemingly good, and even attachment to meditative states is basically captured by the practice of equanimity Regarding restlessness, worry and remorse and they are not blurred. When the mind is agitated and scattered, the remedy is accepting what is going on, followed by patience, clarity and discernment. When thoughts recur, move to the breath and stick to it. about the teacher, technique or ones understand A JOUR NEY OF SELF-AWA in life. When there is a passion for sensation, lack of stimulation drives you into boredom with meditation without realizing that different types of mind disturbing meditation are a contracted mind ( ). The distracted mind represents restlessness and the ability to avoid both contraction and distraction requires balance and integration at deeper levels of insight meditation. This is a profound observation which provides illumination from neuroscience: A JOUR NEY OF SELF-AWA ASTER ING THE INDR ANCES tors needed to attain absorption. The hindrances also obstruct the estab LOTH ND T OR OR IN M EDITATIVE P ACTICE Joseph Goldstein, the well-known meditation teacher, says that there is an aspect of hindrances that is hard to recognize: This is not merely the feeling of sleepiness, but rather the deeper pattern A JOUR NEY OF SELF-AWA HE P HENOMENOLOGY OF OR EDOM It is strange that although boredom emerges as a hindrance and obstruc tion, understanding boredom is itself an invigorating experience. It has been observed that: Boredom is a window to the properties of time and understanding bore dom with wisdom is the key to living in the present. An hour for one person comes in a ash he is rushing against losing time; for another, its a grey block of drudgery, when will this pass away; but for the fully OR EDOM AND TTENTIONAL ISIS To realize that boredom does not come from the object of attention, but rather from the quality of attention is truly a transforming insight. Fritz Perls, one of those who brought Gestalt therapy to America, said, bore dom is lack of attention. Understanding this reality brings profound A decit occurs when there is some laxity in concentration and a fresh interest in the subject or object is recommended. Hyperactivity indicates that the mind is agitated and there is a need to relax. This is preferably done with a relaxing meditation, like HE P ATHOLOGY OF ULTURE THAT C ALLS FOR AN WA ENING A JOUR NEY OF SELF-AWA anger at the corrosive impact of alcoholism on the lifestyle of Buddhists, even in a place where the ame of arduous living burns (Bodhi, October OTES Bhikkhu Th nissaro, 2003, Skilful Intentions, Dhamma Talk, www.dhammatalks.org/Archive/y2003/030928%20Skillful%20 Venerable Henepola Gunaratana, 1992, Wisdom Publications, Boston, MA, p. 138. Otto Fenichel, 1953, , Norton, New York, Mihaly Csikszentmihlyi, 1975, Beyond Boredom and EFERENCES layo. (2010). na: The direct path to realization . Cambridge: Windhorse Publications. Bhikkhu Bodhi. (2000). . Boston: Wisdom. A JOUR NEY OF SELF-AWA Free Will P. de Silva, The Buddha in asserting the existence of free will took a OTES nissaro ( EFERENCES Bhikkhu Th nissaro. (1996). The wings to awakening . Barre Center for Buddhist Studies. Barre, MA: Dhammad Buddhist attitude to other religions How is Moral Pain Different from Righteous Indignation? MORAL PAIN like disappointment, embarrassment, irritation, resentment, anger, jealousy, and fear, instead of being bad news, are actually very clear movements that teach us where it is that we are holding back. They teach us to perk up and lean in what we feel wed rather collapse and back away. Theyre like mes sengers that show us, with terrifying clarity, exactly where were stuck, and lucky for us, its with us wherever we are. (Chodron MOTION P ROFILES OF A NGER , IGHTEOUS NGER AND M ORAL P AIN tradition (McRae Furthermore, the solution to moral dilemmas may also be derived to some extent from an early Buddhist perspective. In fact, the early Buddhist approach to mindfulness-based anger/moral the model of reason as the charioteer and passions as the seven unruly Buddhist approaches to dealing with passions. It is not limited to anger management, which task Aristotle thought was not important as he did not value the importance of moral anger/indignation. While McRaes excellent portrayal of the dilemmas with the Aristotelian and Stoic posi tions is useful, the framework of the present book does not permit me to discuss some of the important ramications of the article. One of the main obstacles to thinking clearly about the morality of MORAL PAIN UDDHIST ETA TTENTIVENESS Ekman and The Dalai Lama offer a signicant exchange: In this story, I see a three-faced attachment: proper anger regarding lost money; anger as possessive; attachment to the anger; and anger justied HE TORY While travelling through Bangkok to New Zealand, all of Franks money was stolen at a checkpoint at the airport. In the excitement, Frank nearly missed the ight. Frank said that what he had experienced was more difcult than withstanding moral anger; it was moral pain. Now this raises a big puzzle and initially I could not solve this puzzle, as I had a similar predicament of moral anger blending with moral pain when some years ago, my purse with two thousand dollars was stolen at an airport. pathway to hell, was not within Franks means at the time. For him, con verting moral anger to moral pain became a great journey. It was one of the emerging blossoms from his broken world. Paul Ekman, in speak ing to The Dalai Lama, says: we do not have to learn how to be angry. THE STORY MORAL PAIN But we have to learn how to be angry with compassion (Ekman, 141). Once you have cultivated compassion it is a permanent part of you. When you encounter suffering you respond compassionately: So in my view, compassion differs from emotions in four ways. Com cultivated is an enduring feature of the person, while emotions come and go. Compassion does not distort our perception of reality, while emotions do initially, during the refractory period. The focus of com passion is restricted to the relief of suffering (Dalai Lama and Ekman ASSA AND M OR P IN Franks problem and my memories of a similar story of stealing my belongings was at the heart of a deep reective turn of mind during a meditation sitting. I sent notes on my problem regarding moral pain and moral anger to my guru, Venerable Uda Eriyagama Dhammajiva. With his customary sharp insights he sent this note to me: Morality, you drop on the way to vipassan When moral pain happens without moral anger, the self cannot claim this as mine or me or myself. from certain kinds of stressful events and turn adversity to advantage. This in a nutshell, is the puzzle that has driven my research (Davidson ing potatoes by Thich Nhat Hanh conveys my point. It offers an alterna ASSAN AND THE B ODY After bringing some calm and reective insights into moral pain, I gradually found that the morning meditation sitting was exhilarating. , I have already summarized what is referred to as the sixth sense: when you come into deep contact with the body. It takes time to reach the rst glimmering experience of a state which I tions slow down and the feverish activity of the body also slows down MORAL PAIN EYOND HERA AND THE OALS OF I NSIGHT EDITATION The Buddhist concept of liberation through insight was not known to NOTHER ODEL : HE KILFUL SE OF A NGER though the peacock eats the poison, this process generates resplend OTES Pema Chodron, 2007, The Places that Scare You MORAL PAIN McRae ( Wallace ( Cayoun ( Dhammajiva Mahathero, 2014, Personal correspondence. Thich, Nhat Hanh, 2001. Anger: Buddhist Wisdom for Cooling the Flames. Rider, London, p. 29. Nyanaponika Mahathero, 1986, EFERENCES Wellbeing and personal growth . Oxford: Wiley. Chodron, P. (2007). The places that scare you Dalai Lama, & Ekman, P. (2008). Emotional awareness . New York: Times Books. Davidson, R. J., & Begley, S. (2013). . New York: Hanh, T. N. (2001). Rider. P. de Silva, Aaron, Ben-Zev, Aaronson, Harvey, Barrat, Barnaby, UTHOR NDEX Gardner, Howard, Germer, Christopher, Goodhew, Linda, Hacker, P.M.S., Haggard, Patrick, Horowitz, Alan, Izard, Carrol E., Jacobson, Nolan Pliny, James, William, Kaparo, Risa, Kierkegaard, Soren, Kolnai, Aurel, Krishnamurti, Jiddu, Loy, David, Lyons, William, MacIntyre, Alasdair, Martin, M.W., McRae, Emily, Miller, William, Murdoch, Iris, Neu, Jerome, Penman, Danny, Premasiri, P.D., Pugmire, David, Ricard, Mattieu, Rorty, Amlie Oksenberg, Rosch, Eleanor, P. de Silva, JECT NDEX melancholy, sense desire, sloth and torpor, Interoception, MBCT, Meditation on repulsiveness yagata sutta and positive absorptions Mind-body relationship, Neuroplasticity, Neuroscience, Self-control subliminal activity, Somatic psychology, Stress, Trauma, Volition,

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