The term "ecology" is formed from two words of the Greek origin: oikos- the house, dwelling and logos - a science. Thus, the ecology is a science about the natural environment surrounding us. It is the section of biology studying interrelations between organisms and environment, about circulation of substances in the nature and the streams of energy doing possible a life on the Earth.
Air pollution is due to natural and anthropogenic sources that is to man’s activities. The pollutants may be gases as well as liquids and solid particulate matter. They are detrimental to man, to fauna, to flora, and to material objects of our world.
Abiotic element - a physical or chemical feature of an environment or ecosystem.
Absorption - the process by which one substance is taken into the body of another substance.
Absolute temperature - temperature measured from absolute zero .Acid –a substance which releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. A strong acid will release a large proportion of hydrogen ions whereas a weak acid will release a small proportion of hydrogen ions.
Acid rain- generally , precipitation in any form, or dry deposition , with a pH lower than would be expected from natural and artificial causes .
Acidity - the ability of a water solution to neutralize an alkali or base.Activated Carbon - a material that has a very porous structure and is an adsorbent for organic matter and certain dissolved gases.
Activated sludge - the active material , consisting largely bacteria and protozoa used to purify sewage.
Activated sludge method - a method of sewage treatment in which wastes are degraded by complex populations of aerobic microorganisms.
Dry wastes - which can be collected by the containers for valuable materials such as glass, paper, cardboard, plastics, metals and similar recycable wastes. Dust - solid particles (1-1100 micrometres in diameter) that are carried into the atmosphere, from which they settle by gravity.Environment - it is an outer media in which human or another living being sustain own interactions during their life. The physical elements of this media are air, water and soil; the biological elements are producers (plants), utilizers (animals) and decomposers (bacteria and fungus); the economical environmental elements are the activities of human, which are related with utilization and operation of natural, human, economical and materialistic sources; the social elements are demographic structure, and historical and cultural infrastructure of human, and the type of life with respect to accomodation, health, education and culture demands. The physical , chemical and biotic conditions surrounding a living organism.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - the federal agency of the US government, established in 1970, that is responsible for dealing with the pollutìon of air and water by solid waste, pesticides and radiation and with nuisances caused by noise.
Environmental quality standards - the maximum limits or concentratìons of pollutants that are permitted in specific media . Environmental protection - that part of resource management which is concerned with the discharge into the environment of substances that might be harmful, or that might have harmful physical effects and with safeguarding beneficial uses.
Filter - as used here, a device of porous material that removes dirt from air that is forced through it.
Filtration - passage of an aqueous or gaseous carrier, water or air through a porous medium (sand, charcoal , etc. ) for the purpose of trapping undesirable materials , usually in suspension , in the water or air.
Waste water - polluted waer from households and commercial and industrial sources which no longer corresponds to the condition of not having been influenced by man. A distinction is made between "domestic waste water" and "commercial and industrial waste water".
Wet bulb - a thermometer bulb maintained wet with distilled water , usually by means of a muslin wick.
Wetland - an area covered permanently, occasionally or periodically by fresh or salt water up to a depth of 6 metresCarbonic gas or carbon dioxide CO2 - In an atmosphere the huge amount of this gas gets as a result of burning of fuel and manufacture of cement. This gas is not poisonous. Carbonic gas is continuously consumed by green plants during photosynthesis. It finds wide application in a life (soda water, «dry ice»). The ecological role of carbonic gas consists in influence on a climate through hotbed (hothouse) effect.
Carbon oxide CO - Carbon oxide is the most widespread and the most significant on weight the impurity of an atmosphere. This gas is poisonous, has no neither colors, nor a smell. The poisoning by this gas can take place completely imperceptibly. Its poisonous properties are explained that it is absorbed by hemoglobin of blood and instead of oxygen is transferred to various bodies that cause the oxygen famine and destruction of an organism.
Aerosols - the quantity of aerosol particles, getting in an atmosphere from natural sources, is estimated in 700-2200 million tons one year, from artificial sources - 185-415 million tons one year.
Ammonia and nitrogen oxides - the basic gaseous pollutions: ammonia, nitrogen protoxide N2O, nitrogen oxide NO, nitrogen dioxide NO2. Ammonia and nitrogen protoxide have basically a natural origin. Main nitrogen-containing pollutions of atmosphere are nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide. These gases are poisonous. The basic anthropogenous sources: combustion of fuel in automobile engines (50 %) and on thermal power stations, burning of firm waste products, forest fires, and also manufacture of nitric acid, mineral fertilizers, artificial fibres, etc.
Aerosol pollutions - aerosols influence on a weather and a climate. Small particles do an atmosphere muddy.
The direct-flow cyclone with a water film - differs from a usual cyclone that on the internal side of its wall continuously flows down the film of a liquid, which is entered in the device through the line of tubes, located in the top part of the device, or with the help of atomizers. Atomizers are established so that torches of pulverization form the film on the surface of the internal wall.
Hollow gas washers -hollow gas washers are most widely used as devices of preliminary clearing of gases. They represent columns or chambers of round or rectangular section.
Low pressure Venturi scrubbers in systems of gas purification are used for preparation of gases in front of dust removal devices. They are intended also for coagulation of fine dispersed dust, for cooling and humidifying of gases and have low hydraulic resistance. Various designs of Venturi pipes are applied. On a way of irrigation two versions are allocated: with preliminary crushing of irrigating liquid (with atomizer irrigation) and with the film irrigation.
Electrostatic precipitators - the method of electrodeposition consists in the following. Small droplets and particles all over again receive a charge from gas ions, which are formed in an electric field of a high voltage, and then they are moved to earth precipitating electrode. Having got on an earth catcher, particles stick and are unloaded. When the precipitating electrode acquires a layer of particles, they are shaken and gather in the bunker.