Горное дело, учебное пособие для ГТФ

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Министерство образования и науки РФ Ф Г Б ОУ ВПО “ Уральский государственный горный университет ” С. А. Безбородова ГОРНОЕ ДЕЛО Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов II курса горно - технологического факультета Екате ринбург 2011 1 Министерство образования и науки РФ Ф Г Б ОУ ВПО ©Уральский государственный горный университетª ОДОБРЕНО Методической комиссией факультета геологии и геофизики УГГУ ©______ª ______________2011 г. Председатель комиссии ________проф. С. Н. Таг ильцев С. А. Безбородова ГОРНОЕ ДЕЛО Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов II курса г орно - технологического факультета Издание УГГУ Екатеринбург, 2011 2 Б 39 Рецензент: Н. П . Сарафанова , ст. преп. каф. ИЯДК Ура льского государственного горного университета Учебное пособие рассмотрено на заседании кафедры иностранных языков и деловой коммуникации 4 октября 2011 г. (протокол № 2 ) и рекомендовано для издания в УГГУ. Безбородова С. А. Б 39 ГОРНОЕ ДЕЛО : учебно е пособие по английскому языку для студентов II курса г орно - технологического факультета / С. А. Безбородова . ‬ Екатеринбург: Изд - во УГГУ, 20 11 . ‬ 6 8 с. Учебное пособие предназначен о для студентов II курса горно - технологического факультета . Пособие состоит из четырех разделов, в которых рассматриваются вопросы основ горного дела . Каждый раздел посвящен определенной теме и содержит текст, лексико - грамматический комментарий и упражнения к тексту. Учебное пособие также содержит ра здел, посвященный написанию аннотаций научных статей и англо - русский терминологический словарь. Цель данной разработки ‬ подготовить студентов к самостоятельному чтению и аннотированию оригинальной технической литературы по специальности. © Безбор одова С. А., 2011 © Уральский государс твенный горный университет, 2011 3 UNIT I: WHAT IS MINING ? TEXT 1: MINING Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия: Mining is a branch of industry occupied wit h the search for exploitation, and dressing of economic minerals and rocks. Many minerals and rocks are today basic raw materials or important auxiliary substances for various branches of industry: coal and oil are the most important sources o building material for machines, bridges and other constructions; other minerals yield the raw materials for the chemical industry; others are used in building; salt is a foodstuff, etc. The miner has two main tasks: to break out, and to transport to the surface the economic mineral. Everything else which the miner does is only a necessary evil 1 , work which is done in order to make these two fundamental activities possible. We pump the water from the mi ne, as otherwise there would be no access to it and work in it would be impossible 2 . For the same reason we ventilate the mine. The support of the mining rooms is also a necessary evil, and the same akes possible the fulfilment of the two basic tasks. support therefore save on them as much as possible and restrict them to the necessary minimum and carry them out only in if they facilitate the fulfilment of our main tasks. COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT : 1 . a necessary evil ‬ неизбежная ра бота 2 . there would be no access to it and wo rk in it would be impossible ‬ не было бы доступа к ней и работа в ней была бы невозможна W ORDS TO MEMORIZ E : Nouns: mining, rock, safety, source, raw materials Verbs: yield, break out, support, app ly, search, co nstitute, carry out, dress, facilitate Adjectives: various, auxiliary, main, important, necessary EXERCISES: I . Read and translate the following words and derivatives: a) a form, formal, formation, to form, formed, to transform, transformati on, to reform, reformation, to inform, fo rmality, information, formalism 4 b) a mine, to mine, mined, mining, a miner, a mining engineer, mining o ds, the Mining University c) transport, to transport, transportat ion, transportable, transported d) to vary, various, variable, varian t, variation, variety e) a chemist, chemistry, chemical II . Answer the following questions: 1. What is mining? 2. What is the most important sources of heat and energy? 4. What main tasks has a miner? 5. Why is it necessary to pump water from the mine? 6. What auxiliary operations in mining do you know? TEXT 2: IMPORTANT TERMS USED IN MINING Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия: All mine openings, which are parallel or nearly parallel to the strike of the deposit and lying in or near the ore body are called drifts (or galleries , or r oadways in coal mining). They are hor izontal or nearly horizontal. They fo llow a contour line of the deposit. The horizon at which an ore body is ope n ed up and fro m whi c h mining proceeds is called a level. The term is often used in the same sense as drift, or to cover all horizontal wor kings on one horizon. All underground open ings which follow the dip are ca lled inc lined shafts or inclines . Their inclination is as a rule identical with that of the deposit. All openings which a re horizontal, but perpendicul ar to the strike of the beds are called crosscuts Vertical openings which cross horizontal or inc lined beds and are parallel to vertical beds are called winzes or raises . Openings cut upwards from be l ow are called raises, and when sunk 1 downwards from above they are called winzes. I n coal m ining vertical interior openings are called staple shafts . The rocks immediately overlying a level, drift or any other working or seam are called the hanging wall ( roof) , the walls are called side walls, and th e rocks immediately below are ca lled the footwall (floor). The beginning of a drift is its mouth , and its end is the face . The terminology of mining differs greatly in coal COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT : 1) when sunk ‬ when they are sunk ‬ когда их проходя т 5 WORDS TO MEMORIZ E: Nouns: openin g, strike, dip, ore body, drift, level, bed, crosscut, winze, raise, sh aft, roof, foot, floor, mouth, face Verbs: cu t, cr follow EXERCISES : I. Group in pairs : a) s ynonyms ; b) anto nyms ; bed to name near down to call seam up to open working to begin b elow shallow stratum opening upwar ds above to start layer t o close downwards nearly almost deep far II . Answer the following questions: 1. What openings do we call drifts ? 2. What is a level ? 3. Wh at workings do we call inclines ? 4. Wha t openings do we call crosscuts ? 5. What impor tant terms in mining d o we know ? TEXT 3: THE IMPORTANCE OF GEOLOGY FOR MINING Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия: The useful and important minerals and rocks are, like all other minerals and rocks, parts of the material that goes to build up the earth‱s crust; therefore geology as the science dealing with the study of this crust has a special importance for the miner. When it was established that coal was formed by the accumulation of p lants and their transformation, carbonization, it becomes obvious that it was useles s to sear ch for it in an area built of gr anite and form ed by the solidification of mol ten magma, and coal could not be formed in a rock of this kind. Generally speaking we shall not look for minerals formed with the cooperation of organisms (oil, limestone , etc.) in igneous rocks as organisms cannot live in molten lava and magma. Organic life was first restricted to water, more accurately speaking to sea water. It took a long time before terrestrial and fresh - water vegetation reached any great development and distribution. It has been definitely establis hed that only in the Carboniferous and Permian periods they appeared, or rather were formed by evolution, on the earth those species of plants which form our principal coal deposit s, and they were widespread only at that time. Thus it would be u seless to look for coal deposit s in strata formed before that time. 6 The deposit s of mineral formed by the transformation and replacement of limestone can be looked for o nly in limestone. Other deposit s were formed by the concentration of certain substances from the granitic magma and thus are found in granitic areas only, or in their immediate neighbourhood. WORDS TO MEMORIZ E: Nouns: earth, crust, coal , area, speci es, deposit, stratum, substance Verbs: deal, establish , form, de velop, distribute, appear, mine Adjectives: obvious, igneous, accurate, immediate, definite, principal Adverbs and expressions: therefore, thus, generall y speaking, accurately speaking EXERCISES: I. Find the synonyms: 1. to look for sediment 2. certain accumulation 3. area kinds 4. concentration definite 5. species region 6. deposit to search for I I. Find the antonyms: 1. near less 2. more unfavo u rable 3. useful un important 4. important far 5. favourable useless 6. slow quick II I . Answer the following questions : 1. Does geology deal with the study of the earth's crust? 2. Why has geology a s pecial importance for the miner ? 3. How was coal formed ? 4. Can we look for c oal in an area built of granite ? 5. Where can we look for c oal ? TEXT 4: THE IMPORTANCE OF GEOLOGY FOR MINING (Continued) Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия: Some kinds of ores a re deposited by water; we look for such ores only in rocks formed by sedimentation from water. When we have determined that a certain ore was formed by sedimentation from sea water - and this с an easily be - then we shall look 7 for it only in sediments formed by marine sedimentation. An ore of this kind will occupy a cer tain posit ion in these sedimentary rocks and will have the same shape as the other marine sediments, i.e. it will form a thicker or thinner, more or less extensive layer. Thus not only the position but also the shape of the deposit is n. When we have ascertained that a certain deposit was forme d by a fissure 1 in the earth's crust being filled with useful minerals, e.g. with galen a , we shall look for this deposit only where there were favo u rable conditions for the formation and filling o f fissures. The shape of the deposit will be that of a fissure, i.e. the deposit will form a vein. geology and mining; how close this connection is will be still more evident after we h ave described the significance of the shape and position of a deposit, as they are the result of the processes by which the deposit of the useful mineral was prospecting and ending with exploitation. Geology is also important for the miner because all mining work is carried are carried out 2 in soft or resistant, coherent or crumbling rocks, in r ocks containing water or in dry rocks, in rocks found near the surface or far below it. A deposit forming a horizontal bed will have to be explored, opened up a nd mined differently from a deposit in the shape of a vertical layer or vein. COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT : 1 ) by a fissure in the earth's crust being filled ‬ путём заполнения трещины в земной коре 2 ) w ing operations are carried out ‬ проводятся ли горные работы WORDS TO MEMORIZ E: Nouns: layer, origin Verbs: deposit, contain, exist, proces s Adjectives: sedimentary, extensive, evident, favora u ble EXERCISES: I. Give synonyms to the following words : kinds, area, deposit, accumulation, look for, certain II . Give antony m s to the following words : useful, less, favo u rable, quick, far, unimportan t III . Give the degrees of comparison of the following adjectives : thick, thin, much, little, soft, resistant, dry 8 I V Answer the following questions : 1. What is determined by the mode of origin? 2. What is the shape of the deposit formed by filling a fi ssure? 3. Do shape and position of a deposit determine all mining work? 4. Is all mining work carried out in the earth's crust? 5. What do the mining operations depend upon? UNIT II: PROSPECTING AND EXPLORATION TEXT 1: PROSPECTING , EXPLORATION AND SAMP LING Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия: Geological prospecting is the first step in fin ding the ore. It is initiated with a study of geological maps and reports, if such exist. Work is directed to regions where the geological conditions are favo u rable for mineralization. In search for primary deposits, intrusive igneous bodies should b e sought, as they may be a sourc e of mineralizing solutions. F е atures that show the presence of min e ralization, such as fissures, faults, shear zones or folds , should then be looked for and followed. If limesto nes are intruded by or lie near intrusives or are cut by fissures, they should receive careful attention. If deposits are known in the area, the mineral habit of the region can then be utilized. Oxidized areas are sought to see if there are any croppings 1 that can tell a story of the character and abundance of pre - existing sulfides. prospecting. The chi c In con n reasons: for location of minerals covered with soil, rock or water; to search for extensions on strike or dip of known ore bodies; to search for parallel orebodies: for lo cation of faults and water - beari bodies for estimating tonnages and values. Boring f rom the surface is best suited for large deposits of fairly uniform grade such as masses or beds dipping less than 50 0 o d of exploration, and may not furnish all the desired information. In such cases trenching , test pitting , shaft sin k ing or drifting is used. Trenches are confined to shallow soil; the e conomic l imit of depth is about 6 - 7 ft; t est pits are used for alluvium too deep for trenches. They ar е applicable for depths to 100 ft, - bearing ground te st pits may be less suitable tha o ds. Ac c uracy of sampling depends largely upon the c haracter of the material drilled. Diamond drills give accurat e samples in h a rd rock where core recovery is churn drills in fine - grained 9 unconsolidatied m aterial whe re casing can be driven ahead by the drill bit or sand pump.Soft, broken formations which cave in the hol e are most difficult to sample. Cores are more sa tisfactory than char - drill sludge for determining geological COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT : 1 . ox idised areas are sought to see if there are any croppings ‬ окислен ны е зоны отыскивают для того , чтобы убедиться есть ли обнажения WOR DS TO MEMORIZ E: Nouns: exploration, cropping, ore body, location, trench, pit, accu racy Verbs: intrude, estimate, drill, prospect, sample Adjectives: primary, uniform, water - bearing , average EXERCISE S : I . Form adjectives with the given suffixes : - ic - - ent - presence; to differ; sufficiency, absence ; - ant - importance, a bundance, distance ; - ary - prime, second, sediment ; - ive ‬ to effec t, to act; - al - industry, nature, to locate, phys ics . II. Add prefixes to the following words and t ranslate them: dis - to cover, to organize, location ; un - favo u rable, satisfactory, suitable, desired, like ; in - ; im - possible, practicable, movable . I II . Group in pairs synonymous words : an area extension to seek for to furnish a bed a region to give to limit reserves tonnages to confine to search for elongation a stratum I V. Find antonyms in the text to the following words: shallow, consol idated, no n . V . Translate into Russian: basic raw material, important auxiliary substances, for mining industry, for other branches of industry, work which is done: a hole is being drilled; the sh aft has been sunk; the support of the mining rooms; the t wo basic tasks. 10 V I. Answer the following questions: 1. What is th e fi rst step is finding the ore ? 2. To what regions is the attention of the miners directed first? of expl oration do you know ? 4. What is b oring used for? 5. Is boring a cheap or ? oration ? 7. What drills gi ve us the most accurate samples ? 8. In what roc ks does churn dr illing present accurate samples ? UNIT III : OPENING UP OF THE DEPOSIT , ITS DEVELOPMENT AND PREPARATION FOR MINING TEXT 1: DIVIDING THE DEPOSIT INTO SECTION S AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов обра титесь к словарю в конце пособия: a. Mining, i.e. the loosening, breaking and winning of a mineral is of course, not carried out without previous planning. We do not mine immediately at the places where we have exp l o r ed the mineral, and wh ere we know the mineral to be¹. All work is carried out in a certain order. This is necessary as only a limited number of miners can work in one place, and this limited number can break only a cer tain quantity of the mineral. If we want a larger output, we have to provide for several such groups to work simultaneously and without interfering wi th each other in the workings². Through any particular haulage road we can transport a certain quantity of mined mineral, a certain quantity of the necessary mining timber and of oth er materials, and convey a certain quantity of air. A larger output therefore demands more road s, and they have to be driven³ according to an accurate plan. Neither the shape of the excavations nor their size can be arbitra ry, otherwise they would cave 4 , t he roofs would collapse and further work would be impossible. The place where mining is going on has also to be easily accessible. Further, we have to provide for the safety o f the miners, the adequate ventilation, the drain ing of water, and especially the transport of the mineral. On terminating exploration 5 therefore the deposit has to be extensively opened up, i.e. made accessible and at the same time divided into suitable sections, which can then be mined gradually, and acc ording to a plan, one after an other. The main object of this division is to make eac h section a self - contained unit : 1. which will be mined separ a t ely, 2. from which there will be separate transport (haulage), 3. which will be manned 6 by a certain of miners, 4. from which the mineral m ined can easily be removed, 11 5. which must be readily accessible, 6. which will be separately ventilated, 7. into which all necessary material, such as timber, building material, tools, machines, etc., can easily be transported, 8. into which the necessary filling material can easily be brought if the excavations are to be filled. output. The larger the output the greater the number of sections which must be opened up and prepare d for mining. Work in one section must not interfere with work in another section. development. Here several f undamental rules are applied , which are not almost generally observed. 1. FIRST RULE: We divide the deposit into separate sections in a vertical direction, the levels or horizons, by making crosscuts from the shaft and horizontal drives from the crosscuts in the deposit, and mine one section after an other , usually from above downwards 7 . This is natural. The sinking of shafts is very expensive and therefore we mine first the portions situated at a shallow depth, and proceed deeper gradually, when the exploit ation already carried out it facilitates further deepening. Moreover, mining and the pumping of water are more difficult and expensive at greater depths. Of course we usually do not begin at the surface, but leave here a protecting pillar , which prevents t he surface waters from of low grade at the surface because of weathering. 2. SECOND RULE: The deposit is divided by horizontal drives into separate sections (in tabular deposits into horizontal panels), w hich, of course, lie one below an other. In these panels we mine along the strike, or across it, or down the dip, but mining as a whole alw ays proceeds horizontally. 3. THIRD RULE: The mineral mined in the different panels is always transported downward as far as the lower level which delimits the panel in depth. With a greater dip of the deposit and with a mineral allowing rough ha n dling we and the crosscut to the shaft. In the pane l section proper the broken ore is not carried upwards, for it is only rarely that upward transport is easy 8 . But we must transport upwards when a section of the deposit does not reach the lower level because of faults and folding. If it is at the limit of the mining field, or if making a drive affording access to this part from below 9 would be more expensive than the suble vel mining of the s mall area. 4. FOURTH RULE: In the different sections we mine horizontally from the boundary to the shaft ( ) direction, from the shaft, i.e. advancing . We start win n ing at the boundaries of the field, firstly in order that the shaft with all i ts surface equipment might remain as long as possible in the undisturbed f ield, and therefore not affected by 12 undermining; secondly, so that the main haulage drives leading to the stopes may be in undisturbed ground. When we mine from the boundaries to the shaft (when - out sections are no long er requi red, and are allowed to cave 10 . It we mine in the opposite direction , advancing, transport from the stopes would be through those parts of the mine which h ad alr eady been worked out, and the system of drives would have to be maintained in disturbed roc k. With very distant boundaries, however, it would take t oo long to mine 11 . During the time of driving we should only mine what would be taken out of the drives 12 . Therefore in such cases we set up several working places near the sha ft, ou 5. FIFTH RULE: When the beds are steeply inclined, the miners enter the workings from above, i.e. by the upper level, and are lowered to the working place. They leave by the lower level. When the beds are fl at, the miners enter thr ough the lower level and through the inclines, as this is the easiest connection with the 6. SIXTH RULE: The necessary timber and other materials, tools and machinery are transported into the mi ne through the upper level and lowered to the working place. If, however, the lower level is well equip ped, it is used for preference 13 . 7. SEVENTH RULE: Similarly, the filling material is transported to the working place through the upp er level and then d own to the si te . 8 . EIGH TH RULE: The air curr ent, on the other hand, is led in through the lower level, rises through the working place, and is extracte d through the upper level. COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT : 1) where we know the mineral to be ‬ в том месте, гд е по нашим сведениям, нахо дится полезное ископаемое 2) without interfering with each other in the workings ‬ не мешая одна другой / друг другу / в выработках 3) they have to be driven ‬ и их нужно проходить 4) otherwise they would cave ‬ иначе они бы обрушил ись 5) on terminating exploration ‬ по окончанию разведки 6) to man ‬ укомплектовывать 7) from above downwards ‬ сверху вниз 8) for it is only rarely that upward transport is easy ‬ так как очень редко бывает легко транспортировать вверх 9) if making a dri ve affording access to this part from below ‬ если проходят выработку дающую доступ к этой части снизу 10) the drives are no longer requi red and are allowed to cave ‬ штреки не требуются и их можно обрушит ь 11) it would take too long to mine retreatingly ‬ потребовалось бы очень долго разрабатывать обратным ходом 13 12) we should only mine what would be taken out of the drives ‬ мы должны добывать только то , что могло бы быть извлечено из штреков 13) it is used for preference ‬ предпочитают пользоваться им WO RDS TO MEMORIZ E: Nouns: dividing , output, un it, drive, significance , pillar, weathering, prepara tory work, crosscut, site, ma chinery, r ule, boundary, stope Verbs: loosen, win, expose, interfere , protect, prevent, han dle, haul, yield, equi p, advance, mainta in, incline Adjectives: certain, several, p articular, accessible, easy , sh allow, expensiv e, cheap, similar, steep, upper Expressions: in order to , as far as, besides , for, as a whole E XERCISES: Ι . Answer the following questions : 1. How is mining carried out? 2. What can we transport throu gh any particular haulage road? 3. What must the shape and size of the excavation provide for? 4. For what purpose do we divide the deposit into sections? 5. How de we divide the deposit? 6. D o we mine along the strike or down the dip in horizontal panels? 7. How do we transport the mineral in the different panels? 8. When do we transport the broken ore upwards? 9. What mining is called “advancing”? 10. What mining is called “retreating”? 11. How do the miners enter the workings when the beds are steeply inclined? 12. How do the miners transport materials, tools, machinery into the mine? TEXT 2 : CLASSIFICATION OF MINING OPERATIONS Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия: a) The mining operations can be divided as follows: 1. Opening up works uncover or, as the miners say, “open up” the deposits and provide access to it . They may be said to include 1 : a) the main and other important levels and crosscuts; b) vertical shafts; c) incline shafts made outside the deposit with the crosscuts pertaining to them. 2. Exploratory Works. By the working listed in we only uncover, strike, and cross the deposit, often only at one point or at a few points. Therefore our next task is to determine the size of the deposit, and also its characte r along the strike as well 14 as down the dip. This is done by making drives and inclines. These openings follow the deposit both in strike and dip. They primarily serve only for exploration, but are designed in such a way as t o make it possible to use them 2 for mining proper should the exploration turn out favourably 3 . 3. Development work proper: the developm ent drive can be called a further stage of opening up; they make a deposit accessible in strike and dip, i.e. over the whole area, if it is stratified as in the case of coal seams and regular veins. Deposits of the shape of irregular lenses and stock - works are opened up to a large extent by means of vertical and inclined shafts and subsidiary shafts , as well as by auxiliary crosscuts and transverse galleries . This further stage of opening up, which is done used for mining and are constructed with special regard to mining 4 , is called development, and the work connected with it is called development work. Its purpose is to make the deposit accessible both in strike and dip. It includes: a) inclines in the d eposit; b) various secondary crosscuts, especially in the sublevels ; c) main drives; d) some sublevel drives; e) subsidiary shafts in the deposit, staple shafts This would give the sequence of opening up, exploring and development. 4) Preparatory Works. After having explored the deposit and made it accessible both in stri ke and dip, or developed it 5 , we proceed to carry out work designed to m ake possible, and to facilitate mining proper. Therefore, we call this preparatory work. It is executed alm ost entirely within the deposit and includes: a) inclines and transfer - stations with manways ; b) sublevel drives between the levels; c) various crosscuts, chutes , minor shafts , raises, winzes and othe r works, though this last group may serve the most vari ed purposes. In this classificati on changes may have to be made 6 according to local conditions and customs. In particular the main levels may be inclined in the development work or in the preparatory work. Not only the technical conditions, especially the shape of the deposit, are important in this respect, but also the economic and administrative aspects. From a purely technical point of view a divisio n into two groups, i.e. opening up and preparatory works, would be roughly sufficient for us, for every wo rk is to a certain extent one of opening up and at the same time also one of preparation for mining. Almost every activity serves simultaneously several purposes. The sinking of the shaft is a preparation for mining, i.e. the first stage of this preparatio n. The driving of crosscuts is the secon d stage, the driving of levels - a further stage, and the making of break - throughs we go still further and put in gravity inclines and sublevel drives. Each of these works opens up a nd makes the deposit accessible: a crosscut - at one point only, a level - along the strike, a break - through - in the direction of the di p. From a technical point of vie w it is a matter of personal judg e ment as to where 15 we what to draw the line and whether we speak of opening - up wo rks or of preparatory works 7 . The opening up, exploration, development, and preparatory work for mining conforms first of all to the shape and position of the deposit, then to the nature of the overburden and the ch hod. The opening up and preparatory work will be different for mining a lens - shaped deposit, a thick horizontal seam, or a faulted and folded seam. Therefore the nomenclature of th e workings and their division into the different groups differ from case to case. COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT : 1) The y may be said to include ‬ можно сказать , что они включают 2) in such a way as to make it possible to use them ‬ таким образом , чтобы можно было их использовать 3) should the exploration turn out favourably ‬ в том случ ае … если 4) are constructed with special regard to mining ‬ строятся специально для добычи 5) after having explored the deposit… or developed it ‬ после разведки месторождения или после того, как проведены подготовительные работы 6) may have to be made ‬ во зможно нужно сделать 7) it is a matter of personal judg e ment as to where we what to draw the line and whether we speak of opening up works or of preparatory works ‬ персонал решает , где провести границу между вскрышными работами и подготовительными WORDS TO MEMORIZ E: Nouns: access, stage, chute, break - throug h, overburden , condition, incline, point, gravity incline, vein Verbs: e, serve, design, vary, follow , expend, prefer, distribute Adjectives: proper, regular, local, especial, sufficie nt Expressions: a few, to a large extent, by means of, as to, either…or E XERCISE S : I . Answer the following questions: 1. How can the mining operations be divided? 2. What do the opening up works include? 3. What do we call “exploratory works”? 4. What is the task of the exploratory works? 5. What are development workings? 6. What is the purpose of development work? 7. What are preparatory workings? 8. What are the stages of preparatory works? 9. What work ing open up and make the deposit accessible? 10. What does every mining work conform to? 16 TEXT 3: PRINCIPLES IN MAKING OPENING UP AND PREPARATORY WORKI N GS (DEVELOPMENT WORKINGS) Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия: a) The purpose of the opening - up, exploratory, development , and preparatory workings is to make a mineral deposit accessible and to facilitate its extra ction . The deposit to be mined 1 simultaneously in several places must be divided into suitable sections. From what has been said it is evident that the opening - up and preparatory works precede mining proper. To execute them usually takes a fairly long time. We need to know this period of time in order to prepare a sufficient length of longwall or as many working faces as are required to give the desired output. Every working is used only for a specific time. Therefore it is made to last only for that time and n o longer. There are workings which are needed only for a very short time, a few months or weeks. Such workings must be equipped differently from those which will stand for many years. We have to bear this in mind when we decide upon the support of a workin g. The amount of production from a given locality also is important from the point of view of support . In galleries through which a great part of the output passes , repairs and other interruptions of work would be most annoying, and therefore the support of these places is made more enduring . Th e dimensions of the haulageways are determined: partly by their importance, i.e. by the amount of broken mineral passing through them, w single or double - railed 2 , partly by the quantity of air which has to be led through them, by the dimensions of the pipelines, cables and other installations running off. In mines with fire - damp, and generally in mines into which a great amount o f air has to be led, the quantity of air alone often decide s the dimensions of the levels. Of course, we could driv e double the amount 3 of air into the mine by doubling the velocity of the air, but then the resistance would increase fourfold , and the powe r necessary to drive the fan eightfold. For, with greater velocity, the resi stance increases as the square 4 of the velocity and the consumption of energy by the fan as the cube 5 . As the energy necessary to drive the fan would be too great, and as excessive velocity of the air and greatly increased pressures also hav e many drawbacks of their own 6 , we choose for preference larger sections. b) This has also other advantages: it is easier to work in wide levels. Their maintenance is, of course, more difficult, and to drive them is more expensive. But wh en the rock is suitable and not subject ed to much pressure, thereby making the maintenance expensive, we preferably drive wide levels. The cost of doing so does not increase proportionally with the cro ss - section because in a narrow s pace driving is more difficult, and it is also more difficult to break the rock from the face. Too much restriction in the dimensions usu ally has to be paid for later 7 . In 17 good ground the section can be increased considerably with only a small increase in cost. Especially where conditions give a strong roof, it is better not to economize on the section. It is apparent that wherever there is a choice 8 , it is preferable to make the galleries in firmer rock in order that the maintenance c ost may be as low as possible, even though the actual driving becomes more expensive. For long - term galleries the maintenance costs are decisive. In poor rocks and in rocks developing great pressure maintenance and driving are costly, as we have to use sp supporting is essential from the very beginning. Furthermore, we must keep in mind that horizontal drives, especially where there is a steep dip of the deposit, suffer more from pressure than inclines . The horizontal dr ive undercuts the beds in their entire length, and with a steeper dip the beds above tend to press into the drive. The roof, too, presses downward parallel to the dip of the beds. These fac tors make complicated demands 9 on the support of a horizontal drive . This is not the case 10 with inclines where the movement and pressure of the beds act parallelly to the excavation, and the beds are not undercut in the direction in which they have a tendency to move. Thus they are relatively stable, and there is not mu ch pressure on the incline. The levels are used primarily for the transport of the ore from the mine to the shaft. The workers walk or are transported through them to and from the stopes 11 , and tools and material also pass es through them into the mine. Th erefore they have to be as straight as possible: in mechanical transport (with cable or chain - haulage direction cause great d ifficulties and are costly, and , of course, also sl ow down the rate of extraction. Therefore small deviations in the strike of the deposit are not followed 12 , but straight haulageways are driven. More recently the development of haulage technique has made it necessary to shift the main haulageways outside the ore deposit simply to make them straight and free from pressure effects, and thus avoid frequent repairs of the supports. the ore body, and we must never allow such a drive t o undulate as roads do on the surface, because the drainage of water would be difficult and there would be danger from flooding. Haulage would also be hampered 13 . The gradient of the drive has to be very regular and gentle, usually between 1 : 500 and 1: 1 ,000 14 , i.e. When planning the opening - up and preparatory works we have to remember that as soon as the workings have attained a certain size it is necessary to have two exits from the mine, and from each working place, in case of accide nt. As their air current also requires an entrance and an exit, the same levels or drifts serve both purposes. 18 COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT : 1) the deposit to be mined ‬ месторождение , которое должно быть разработано 2) single or double - railed ‬ являю тся ли они / откаточные пути / одно - или двухпутевыми 3) double the amount ‬ в два раза больше 4) as the squar e of ‬ пропорционально квадрату 5) as the cube ‬ пропорционально кубу 6) o f their own ‬ своих собственных 7) has to be paid for later ‬ должно сказат ься впоследствии 8) wherever there is a choice ‬ в том слу чае, если предоставляется выбор 9) make complicated demands ‬ предъявляют высокие требования к 10) this is not the case ‬ это не относится к 11) to and from the stopes ‬ к очистным забоям и обратно 12) are not followed ‬ / зд ./ не учитываются 13) haulage would also be hampered ‬ откатка также была бы затруднена 14) 1 : 500 ‬ one in five hundred; 1 : 1,000 ‬ one in one thousand WORDS TO MEMORIZ E: Nouns: working, development, output, support, amount, r epair, q uantity, dimension, velocity, installation, consumption , maintenance, restriction, choice, cost Verbs: facilitate, extract, precede, execute, prepare, desire, last , keep, suffer, undercut, tend, demand, act Adjectives: suitable, double, excessive, expensive, preferable, apparent, actual, decisive, essential, entire, stable Expressions: from the point of view, ther eby, in order that, furthermore EXERCISES: Ι . Group the synonymous words in pairs: purpose apply employ obtain opening make solid do instruments hard aim tools working I Ι . Give the degrees of comparison of th e given adjectives and adverbs: good, bad, many, difficult, evident, ste ep, essential, expensive II Ι . Answer the following questions : 1. What is the purpose of the opening - up works? 2. What works precede mining proper? 3. Do we continue the preparatory work too far? 19 4. How long is every working used? 5. Does the amount of production from a given locality affect the support of the working ? 6. By what factors are the dimensions of the haulageways 7. What often decides the dimensions of the levels? 8. What advantages has a wide level? 9. In what rocks are mainte nance and driving (costly) expensive? 10. What factors make complicated demands on the support of a horizontal drive? 11. Why are the inclines relatively stable? 12. For what purpose are the levels used? 13. Why have the levels to be as straight as possibl e? 14. Why have the levels to be almost horizontal? 15. What is the gradient of the drive? 16. How many exits are necessary from each working place and from the mine? Ι V . Group antonyms in pairs: above hard soft lower quick unusual raise give usua l unknown take top well - known below bottom slow TEXT 4: OPENING UP WORKS Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия: 1) Vertical Shafts (a) Vertical shafts are used especially for hoisting ; the y also serve as the entrance into and the exits from the mine; timber and other material are transported through them, as well as filling material, and they constitute the airways. The pipelines for removing the water, the electric cables, the pipelines fo r compressed the ore or coal, they form the main working shafts. When they serve for ventilation they are only certain special purposes, e.g. the transport of filling material, as emergency exits, A shaft need not open on the surface 1 . When it begins below the surface it is called “an underground shaft” ( blind shaft ). 20 The return upcast shaft often serves also for the transport of men and material, for the compressed air pipeline, for the electric cables, water - pipes, etc., so that the main shaft is not disturbed by frequent repairs and can be used entirely for hoisting . The performance of the shaft may be increased by increasing the hoisting speed, by shortening the time for loading and unloading, i.e. by suitable equipment and circulation of the cars at the shaft stations in the mine and on the surface, and by employin g multi - compartment cages. At present we have cages with up to eig ht 2 compartments, which can hoist a great number of trucks and a large body of workers. In the shaft there are two hoisting compartments side by side. A greater hoisting performance can be a chieved also by the use of skips. Vertical shafts are c ut almost without exception through the b e ds. In horizontal or slightly inclined beds we also traverse and explore by this means the overburden and ascertain its nature, which cannot be done by incline s. That the vertical shaft traverses , the overburden may on the other hand be a great disadvantage , when the overburden includes wear rock saturated with water. Upon the nature of the rock through which the shafts are sunk depends the choice of their shape and manner of their support. 2) Incline Shafts in the Deposit We usually sink incline shafts directly down the dip of the deposit. They serve the same purpose as vertical shafts. ce and by size of the output. Usually the section is 3 x 2.50 ‬ 6 x 2.50 m. 3 We divide the shafts into different compartments in the same way as we divide the vertical shafts: manway, skipway (hoisting compartment), pumping compartment (for pipelines, cabl Incline shafts in the deposit have the advantage that, when sinking them, we explore the nature of the deposit. A certain amount of ore is also obtained, which pays, at least in p art, for the costs of sinking 4 . Water - bearing beds, which perhaps have developed in the overlying strata, are also avoided. In using inclines there is no need for lengthy crosscuts ; this is very important saving in gently inclined seams and in deep mines where the crosscuts of the lower levels are rather long. But incli ne shafts have also serious drawbacks. They suffer more from pressure than vertical shafts, hoisting is more difficult and slower because the guides and cable suffer more. They cannot be used at all, or offer no advantages, in folded and faulted deposits o r in a deposit w here the dip changes frequently and the deposit. Also for deposits wi th a thick overburden at the sur face they cannot be used very well. No t when they are sunk through the overburden, as is done in the case of horizontal or thick deposits situated near the surface, the layout of the mine becomes simpler in this way. On the Continent vertical shafts are the rule; British and American minin g engineers, however, ma ke use 5 of incline ones. Much depends, of course, on the structural conditions. 21 3) Incline Shafts Sunk Outside the Deposit Incline shafts sunk outside a deposit are of importance not only for dipping but also for folded or disturbed seams and for thick de posits near the surface. COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT : 1. A shaft need not open on the surface ‬ нет необходимости , чтобы ствол выходил на поверхность 2. up to eight ‬ до восьми 3. 3 x 2.50 ‬ 6 x 2.50 = from three by two and a half to six by two and a half ‬ о т трех на два с половиной до шести на два с половиной 4. which pays, at least in part, for the costs of sinking ‬ которое окупает , по крайней мере частично , затраты по проходке 5. to make use ‬ использовать WORDS TO MEMORIZ E: Nouns: hoisting, entrance, e xit, airway, truck , performance, car, cage, skip, compartment Verbs: fill, equip, achieve, traverse , obtain, suffer, situate Adjectives: frequent, downcast, upcast , slow, considerable, simple Expressions : up to, at present EXERCISES: I . Answer the followi ng questions 1. For what purpose are vertical shafts used? 2. What do we call “blind shaft”? 3. For what purpose does the return or upcast shaft serve? 4. How can we increase the performance of the main shaft? 5. Where are vertical shafts cut through? 6. Where do we usually sink incline shafts? 7. Is the size of the section determined by the size of the output? 8. What is the advantage of incline shafts? 9. What are serious disadvantages of incline shafts? ΙΙ . Give synonyms to the words: drawback, cert obtain, gently, bed, frequently ΙΙΙ . Give antonyms to the words: disadvantage, slow, main, shaft, decrease, lengthen, unloading, overlying rock, simple 4) Crosscuts (a) Crosscuts are horizontal or almost horizontal workings lea ding to the deposit across the beds, usually at a right angle to the strike of the beds or simply at a right angle to the deposit, as e.g. in the case of veins in eruptive rocks. It is the shortest way to the deposit, and therefore the cheapest one. In mou ntainous regions, and with steeply inclined deposits we can drive the crosscuts from the 22 surface ( adits and the deposit proper or between an incline shaft and the deposit, when the incline shaft lies outside the deposit. With a regularly inclined and a simple deposit, e.g. one coal seam , the division of the galleries into inclines and horizontal drives is very easy. Here also the term crosscut is clear. But with a horizontal tabular deposit there is no therefore ambiguous in this connection. The same also applies to deposits in the d eposits it is necessary to t reat the whole area as a unit 1 . In such cases a crosscut runs in one place across the beds, in another section parallel to the strike of the beds, or obliquely to the strike. In large and deep coal mines the costly sinking of tw in shafts, and the costly building up of the whole enterprise necessitate the allotment of a large area. Such an area is divided into several separate sections (fields, districts or divisions). For each we make a separate crosscut, which of course is drive n to make the shortest connecti on with the section concerned 2 . From the main shaft several crosscuts then run in different directions, and of course some of them are oblique to the strike of the beds or parallel to it. In a large field a long crosscut trav erses several sections of different geological structures. (b) The main crosscut traverses the entire mining field and penetrates through all deposits. There is such a crosscut at each level. It is the main one for the level in question 3 . It serves the sam e purpose as the shaft, and thus it must have the correct cross - section, and has to be particularly well constructed, as repairs of its support would hold up the transport of the entire level. Nevertheless its life is shorter than that of the main shaft, a s it is no longer needed after the level has been mining the next lowe r level, unless the air is led 4 by another route. When we y abandon it. Thus its support, though it be less so than in the shaft 5 , the enterprise. Crosscuts have usually a trapezoid cross - made circular or elliptic, and enti rely walled, especially in weak rock. A circular cross - section is neat, resistant to pressure, but of small capacity. There is much Crosscuts slope a little towards the shaft so that water can flow off of its own accord 6 . The gradient is chosen so that the energy needed for the transport of a full truck to the shaft is the same as for the transport of an empty one from the shaft into t he workings, i.e. about 1 : 250. But if waste for filling ha s to be transported into the mine, the grad ient is usually only 1 : 1000, when well - made, this is sufficient t o allow the water to run off 7 . 5) Auxiliary Crosscuts (c) After traversing by a crosscut we drive in each deposit a horizontal drift which has to serve for the whole of the output of the particular level and zone of 23 the deposit in which it is driven. When the distance to the boundaries of the field is long, the drive in the deposit will be used for a considerable time, and as the pressure on it is considerable, its maintenance costs will also be high. Therefore, deposit, we make a main drive for the whole group of seams in the underlying rocks, and from this main dr ive we branch off , at distances of 100 to 500mm, making auxiliary crosscuts to the different deposits. be mined out more rapidly, worked intensively independently of the neighbour ing sections. Levels in the deposit itself after the section is mined are superfluous and can be abandoned . As the mining of shorter sections does not take a long time, these levels can be more simply equipped. B 8 in obtaining a greater number of stopes . They will then be mined simultaneously, and thus we get a much greater output than if we used level 9 made in the seams. difficulties in ve n tilation and where the rock pressure is great. It is especially the coal seams are divided into shorter level sections and we need not maintain drives made in the deposit while mining out the whol e length of the level, but only time. 6) Adits (Tunnels) Crosscuts which open on to the surface are called adits . When they run at a shallow depth below the surface, they ar e connected at regular intervals with the surface by small winzes or raises which aid ventilation during driving and or more places. COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT : 1) to treat the whol e area as a unit ‬ рассматривать весь участок как одно целое . 2) the section concerned ‬ участок , о котором идет речь . 3) the level in question ‬ горизонт, о котором идет речь . 4) unless the air is led ‬ если воздух не отводится . in the shaft ‬ может быть все же менее прочн ым , чем в стволе . 6) of its own accord ‬ сама . 7 ) to allow the water to run off ‬ чтобы вода ушла 8 ) we also succeed ‬ нам также удается 9 ) if we used levels ‬ если бы мы использовали выработки /levels - зд. выраб отки/ 24 WORDS TO MEMORIZ E: Nouns: angle, cost, enterprise, adit, stockwork , drive, waste, route, path , drift, output, boundary, field, seam Verbs: lead, connect, traverse, disturb, run , allow, wall, last, lay, fill , drive, branch off, ensure, alter, succeed Adjectives: cheap, proper, steep, regular, oblique , close, rapid, solid, entire, resistant , whole, considerable, shallow Adverbs: n EXERCISES: Ι . Give the positive degree of the adjectives: shortest, cheapest, most incline, deeper, greate st, lower. II . Answer the following questions : 1. What is a crosscut? 2. Are crosscuts located at the right angle to the deposit ? 3. In what cases do the horizontal drives and the inclines differ? 4. Can a long crosscut traverse several sections of differ ent geological structures? 5. What purpose does the main crosscut serve? 6 . What cross - section do crosscuts usually have? 7 . Why do crosscuts slope a little towards the shaft? 8 . For what purpose do we drive a horizontal drift in each deposit? 9 . Do we mak e a main drive for the whole group of seams in the underlying rocks? 1 0 . How can each section between the auxiliary crosscuts be mined? 1 1 . I ΙΙ . Group in pairs : a) s ynonyms ; b) a ntonyms ; apply chief different separate path enough output underground solid flow - off clos e together deep sufficient way shallow production entire use difficult natural run off w hole thin the same main hard artificial easy aid help on the surface thick Ι V . Give synonyms to the words: solid, way, apply, entire, help, chief, sufficient, run of f V. Give antonyms to the words : deep, thin, easy, close, together, artificial, undergro 25 7) S haft stations and circuits Shaft stations are enlarged cavities made at different levels at the junction of crosscuts (and, in general, the levels leading from the shaft) with the shaft. Usually they are enlarged beginnings of crosscuts. Their height is usually greater than that of the galleries, especially at the shaft itsel f, as they have to serve for the handling of long objects ( cage into the levels and also for the manipulation of chute doors . They are made particularly high where raised platforms are used, and where, in shunting the t rucks, we do not move the cage but push the trucks in simultaneously from all the platforms. This is done wherever there is a h igh output, and when it is important to load the cage quickly at the shaft station. For this purpose an auxiliary lift (cage) is also often used. Similar contrivances are found at bank , where we again push the trucks from the cage simultaneously from all its compartments. Here the banking arrangement must, of course, have as many platforms as the cage has. Support of the shaft stati ons is particularly thorough, as repairs to the roofs and walls would greatly hamper traffic 1 . The station s are usually lighted by electricity. At the shaft station the full trucks are assembled and pushed into the cage and the empty ones arranged in train s for re - distribution 2 . Usually several sets of rails are laid down side by side so as to facilitate the marshalling and distribution ore is tipped out of the trucks, sor ted, classified, and stored until hoisted in the cage. To a certain extent this makes the transport in the levels independent of the transport in the shaft. Often, especially in hoisting with skips, storage bins are built at the shaft station. Ti mber and all building material, machine, tools, and accessories of all kinds are also unloaded at the shaft station. Here the workers gather on leaving or entering the cage and are divided into groups before going to their working places, if this is not do ne on the surface. Notice - boards with various instructions are hung here. The shaft station also houses the different devices for signa l ling and warning the workers and for direct communication with them (telephone or speaking tube); first - aid kit, er and dressings , and drinking water are also installed here. The mine pumps, auxiliary fans, etc., are frequently placed in a special chamber at the shaft station. But the stock of exp losives is in no circumstances 3 placed here, though it is usually found best to have it fairly close to the shaft station. To facilitate the handling of the trucks and to speed them around there are circuits , or roundabouts , i.e. circular galleries made at the different levels. They enable empty trucks to be pushed out 4 of th e cage on one side and simultaneously the full ones to be pushed in on the other side, thus ensuring a more mechanical equipment of the shaft station is simple in small min es and complicated in the big ones. 26 COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT : 1) as repairs to the roofs and wall s would greatly hamper traffic ‬ т . к . ремонт кровли и стенок создаст помехи транспорту 2) for re - distribut ion ‬ для распределения по участкам 3) in no circums tances ‬ ни при каких условиях, никогда 4) they enable empty trucks to be pushed out … the full ones to be pushed in ‬ они дают возможность выталкивать пустые вагонетки … и закатывать груженые WORDS TO MEMORIZ E: Nouns: shaft station, circu it, cavity, bank, device, fan, pump Verbs: enlarge, push, arrange, store, hoist, gather, enter , house, warn, install, enable, ensure Adjectives: empty, direct, fair, rapid Expressions: in general, to a certain extent EXERCISES: Ι . Form verbs from the following nouns: excav ation, requirement, formation, separation, direction, pressure, assistance, undercut Ι I . Answer the following questions : 1. What is a shaft station? 2 . What purpose does the shaft station serve? 3 . Where are the shaft stations made particularly high? 4 . H ow are the stations usually lighted? 5 . Why are several sets of rails laid down side by side at the stations? 6 . What materials are loaded at the shaft stations? 7 . What devices do the shaft stations house? 8 . For what purpose are circular galleries made? 9 . What do circuits ensure? 1 0 . Do circuits also aid the circulation of the air? II Ι . Form the adjectives from the following adverbs: commonly, mainly, rarely, gradually, usua lly, commercially, considerably, simply, immediately, especially 27 UNIT IV: DEVELOPMENT WORK TEXT 1: Main Haulageways: Group Levels, Subdeposit Levels Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия: It is not possible to make a horizontal drive directly in the deposit in heavily folded, faulted, and irregular deposits. Not can this be done 1 in these deposits of too soft a nature 2 because of the excessive pressure which develops after excavation and in the course o f mining the ore body. Also, where several seams are grouped close together, it is more advantageous to establish one main haulageway for all of them. Such a drive is bu ilt in the solid rock underlying the group of seams which it has to serve, or in the flop of a thick deposit; we drive it quite straight and build it as solidly as it necessary 3 . This is done to prevent interruptions in hauling for repairs. It is preferable to construct the main haulageway as a subdeposit drives because drives in the deposit suffer considerably from pressure as soon as mining has progressed a certain distance 4 . Further, one haulageway can be better equipped than several haulagew ays, one for each seam. Of course, the most favourable rock for driving is selected. We call such drives group levels or subdeposit levels. TEXT 2: Drives Drives are very important mining works. They divide the whole deposit into longitudinal regions whic h can be mined out systematically one after an other. They make possible the exploration of the deposit along the strike. They often proceed Many author s include them among the p reparatory works. They make possible a horizontal advance into the ore body as well as the mining of whole long zones of the deposit above the drive. In this respect they are already a preparation for mining. When the whole section above the drive i s mined out, the drive itself se rves as a return ventilation drive, when the next lower level is mined. Drives are very important for transport, and therefore they are constructed relatively solidly. Their life when one seam is being mined is about the same as th at of a crosscut or a little shorter. When several seams are being mined their life is still shorter, as a drive is used only for the output of the section situated above it, whereas a crosscut serves for the output of all the drives from all the seams whi ch it crosses, i.e. of the drives on both sides of it. Drives have, according to their importance, a cross section “clear” or 1.5 x 2m to 3 x 2 m 5 ; as they advance into the workings they rise, like the crosscuts, so as to permit the run - off water and to fa cilitate the haulage of the full trucks from the workings. Their gradient is usually 1 : 250, and only when filling material is to be transported along them as little as 1 : 1000. 28 In mountainous regions, where the configuration of the surface allows it, an d especially where the deposit outcrops, we drive into the deposit, directly from the surface. Drives which open up a deposit and make it accessible along its length, and which are, like the corresponding crosscut, the basis for the division of the deposit into levels, are also called level drives in contradistinction to the sublevel drives. By their nature the sublevel drives are preparatory works. TEXT 3: Twin Drives: Companion Drives In coal mines, and, in general, in not too firm rocks, or where there is a danger of inrushes of water, caving of the drive, or the outbreak of fires, explosion, workers, for if the roof caves in one drive, they have the chance of escaping through the other. Ventilation is also assisted 6 . These two drives are driven close about 50 - 100 m the two drives are connected by a break - through in order to make air ci rculation possible. The parallel drive is called “companion drive”. TEXT 4: Overbreaking and Underbreaking In making drives through thin seams we widen them either by overhand - or by underhand stoping or by both; the method is chosen according to the natu re of the rocks in the overlying and underlying beds and according to how we want to remove the waste . TEXT 5: Transverse Galleries (Break - throughs) Auxiliary crosscuts are in fact also the transverse galleries which are made in thick deposits across the ore body in order to divide it into sections along the strike. They serve only a short time and run across the whole thickness of the deposit only; and therefore they are usually shorter. TEXT 6: To dispose of the waste from the stoping, we mine, simultaneously with driving, a narrow panel of coal or mineral from the side of the drive and place the more advantageous than it actually is. Inrushes of water and gas accu mulated in TEXT 7: Sublevel Drives Level drives divide the deposit into horizontal zones, delimit the ground section, for airways, for the run - off of water , and for the transport of material into the workings. In addition to these drives, other drives are often made in a section, especially in gently inclined deposits. These divide the deposit into narrower panels and zo nes, which are mined one after anot her, or simultaneously. Thus, we 29 obtain a number of stopes and haulages and increase the output. These drives are called sublevel drives, they are narrower and more single in support and equipment than level drives ‬ as t hey serve a smaller purpose. COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT : 1. Not can this be done ‬ это нельзя сделать 2. of too soft a nature ‬ из - за мягкой породы 3. and build it as solidly as it necessary ‬ и крепим е е как можно прочнее 4. as soon as mining has progressed a certain distance ‬ как только выработка продвин улась на какое - то расстояние 5 . 6 . Ventilation is also assisted ‬ ч то также способствует проветриванию WORDS TO MEMORI Z E: Nouns: haulage, seam, subdeposit , a cross - section, truck, gradient, twin drives, danger, outbreak , run - off . Verbs: advance, situate, allow, outcrop, inrush, aid, escape , remove, dispose of , appear, accumulate . Adjectives: regular, excessive, solid, thick , relative, clear , corresponding, firm , narrow, actual . Adverbs: whereas, apart . EXERCISES : Ι . Answer the following questions: 1. Why is it impossible to make a horizontal drive directly in faulted deposit? 2. Where is it preferabl e to construct the main haulage way? 3. What are drives? 4. For what purpose are drives used? 5. Why are some drives s 6. What does a drive serve for when the whole section above the drive is mined out? 7 . What is the life of a drive? 8 . What is the cross section of drives according to their importance ? 9 . When are two parallel drives dr iven simultaneously? 10. In w hat wa у are two drives driven? 11. What are transverse galleries? 12. What do we call a pocket? 13. Do sublevel drives divide the deposit into narrower panels and zones? ΙΙ . Give synonyms to the words: choose, excessive, rock pressure, caving, exploration, favo urable, systematically, in this way, aid . 30 Ι II . Give antonyms t o the words: l oose rock, narrow, one after an other, underbreaking dangerous . TEXT 8: Gravity Inclines and Winzes Gravity inclines are opening s made in the direction of the dip of the deposit. The ore mined in the corresponding region is transported through t hem, usually to the next lower le vel drive. As it is not always convenient to use gravity inclines in more steeply inclined deposits as routes for the workers, manways have to be made, eithe r on one or on both sides of the incline. Between the manways and the gravity incline there is usually a . Often the gravity incline and the to the other is mined o ut. The pillars between the gravity incline and the manways are then built from filling waste . To be able to cross from one side of the gravity incline to the other it is necessary to make a connection below or above it. The gradient of the gravity incline the incline is built as one - way or two - way conn e ction. The height is usually about 2 - 2.5m. As the gravity incline is used only during t he working life of one region, it is constructed to last only for this period. A gravity incline has to be provided with safeguards for the workers employed at the bottom in case of falls. We associate with gravity inclines the similar openings in a deposi t through which, under certain conditions, the mineral is raised to a higher level. Such inclines are called winzes . They differ from gravity inclines proper only in their hoisting arrangements. For gravity inclines a br e aking arrangement is often sufficie nt whereas winzes have to be equipped with hoisting machinery. Winzes are really interior shafts serving a particular region. They may serve also as air ducts . Often they are only sumps for the exploration of t he deposit. TEXT 9: Raises and Chutes In steeply inclined deposits we often make raises, working from below upwards, as the task is easier than when done from above downward. They are often entirely timbered or walled - in . The ore is transported to the low er drive through them as well as the filling waste and other material required, e. g. timber. Raises are often made only in the filling, as is the case in overhand mining. A chute is an opening, usually of smaller dimensions, for the passage of ore. The lo wer end of a chute is usually provided with a suitable trap door which allows the cars to be easily loaded. Once a winze or raise (staple shaft, in coal mining) is made it is not possible to tell, whether it was made from above downward or from below upwar d, except that what it was first called it is always afterwards called. Often the chutes, winzes and raises are divided into a mining section and a manway. 31 TEXT 10: Break - throughs , or Holings Excavations made with the object of connecting two parallel dr ives are called break - throughs, or holings, and from them the winning of the mineral usually begins. Often this connecting of two parallel drives is done to improve venti lation and provide an emergency opening in case the roof of a drive should cave . G ener ally speaking, every connec break - through or holing. Their cross - sectional area, gradient , support , and local conditions. UNIT IV : EXCAVATI ON TEXT 1: EXCAVATION Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия: (a)The most important work in mining is the ex cavation of the mineral or rock. Everything done in the mine is intended to facilitate and make possible this a im of mining. Therefore due attention must always be paid to this work. Excavation is the loosening and breaking out of the required rock from other rock , and loading it onto some means of transport 1 . This is usually done at the working face. At the face t he mineral mined is free only on one side, an d the other five sides have to b e freed, i.e we have to overcome the cohesion with the neighbo u ring rock.We try to ma k e this work as easy as possible. This is done by directing excavation so that we always have m o re than one free surface, and at least two surfaces, i.e. that the rock mined always forms a corner. Then it is more easily separated and broken off than the full straight face. For this reason we direct the c utting . Steps (advance cuts) are also useful in this respect. We proceed by first making in the rock a so - call ed cut 2 , often narrow, in which the remaining whole block can ea sily be broken. make it even if we work exc lusively mechani cally, or if we blast the whole quantity of material at once. When we have a cho ice w e mine the rock or that part of the deposit which is alre ady fissured by nature, but of s ource only if it is immaterial whe ther we obtain the blocks whole and undisturbed 3 . We utiliz e the natural fissures and cleats which generally tra verse the rocks in great number and estabilish the working face in such a direction as to make natural fissures facilitate our work in breaking down. We also always try to utilize the natural rock and roof pressure, and where it is possible to do so we produce this pressur e artificially by not filling the mined out rooms (stoped areas) immediately after mining out some small areas, but by leaving the roofs over a certain suitable distance unsup ported for so long that they 32 develop the necessary pressure which of its own accord c rush es the rock mined and thus facilitates our work. In working we also utilize gravity, and therefore we mine so that the weight of the rock assists in mining, i.e. we br eak overhand , and in room mining and undercutting we undercut a whole area. After weakening , removing and blasting the supports or supporting pillars a considerable quantity of the materi al ca ves (i.e. breaks down) and c rush es of its own accord 4 . We procee d in the same way in quarrying , so that whole high faces may collapse. Also, we must always blast from as large a face as possible 5 , as the effect is then the greatest. Nowadays we mine: 1) with hammerpicks ; 2) by blasting, where the holes for the charge o f explosives are drilled mechanically; 3) by undercutting machines with the use of hammerpicks or blasting (the undercutting machine is only an aid in breaking); 4) by undermining the deposit and by block caving ; 5) with power shovels ; 6) by hydraulic mini ng (using a stream of water); 7) by dredges ; 8) by wedging , as in quarries ; 9) by cutting with a saw or with an endless wire ; 10) by dissolving or melti ng t he mineral and pumping the resulting solu tion of liquid; 11) by pumping, e.g. oil, brine , and minera l waters; 12) by driving air or gases into the deposits of liquid minerals and using the resulting gaslift to drive them out. COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT : 1. loading it on to some means of transport ‬ погрузка ее на какие - либо средства передвижения 2. by first making in the rock a so - called cut ‬ сначала делая в породе , так называемый , вруб 3. and undisturbed ‬ но только , если неважно , получим ли мы блоки целые и неповрежденные 4. of its o wn accord ‬ по д действием собственной тяжести 5. we must always blast from as large a face as possible ‬ мы всегда должны производить взрывание по возможн ости на большей площади/забоя/ WORDS TO MEMORIZ E: Nouns: choice, aim, at tention, means, step, cut , gr avity, weight, quarry, shovel, corner, filling Verbs: remain, utilize, establish, excavate, overcome , stope, remove, blast, cave, drive, separate 33 Adjectives: due, neighbouring, narrow, free , immediate, suitable, considerable Expressions: in this respect , f or this reason, at once , in the same way, at least, by hand EXERCISES: Ι . A nswer the following questions: 1. What is excavation? 2. Where is excavation usually done? 3. How do we do the first cut? 4. Do we utilize natural fissures and roof pressure for exc avation? 5 . Can we produce rock and roof pressure artificially? 6 . How do we utilize gravity in working? 7 . Why don't we fill the mined out rooms immediately after mining out small areas? 8 . How do we min e economic minerals nowadays? TEXT 2: FUNDAMENTAL RULES IN CHOOSING THE MINING ( General Remarks ) Прочитайте и пер еведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия: divided into suitable sections, how the mining proper proceeds, how the broken rock is transported, how the workings are ventilated and made safe, how all the materials and men required are transported, and how the broken - out cavities are deposit, its dip and thickness; by the or e body and its properties; by the nature of the overlying, underlying, and flanking beds , especially of the roof and the floor; by the size of the output, by the development of gases and coal dust; by the amount of inflowing water; by the course of cleats , partings , and other fissures traversing the deposit; by the depth at which we mine; and by consideration for the protection of the surface and many other circumstances. also the c heapest under the given conditions 1 . One is the most desirable 2 which g ives the greatest output with the smallest number of working hours and the smallest amount of energy and material expended, while at the same time giving sufficient safety to the worker s, and having a favo u rable influe nce on the future development of the mine. This is a task in which the mining engineer can show his knowledge, the keenness of his judg e ment, and the maturity of his experience. they are entirely or partly filled in with waste, and to the way i n which we effect the filling 3 . We also distinguish them according to whether we m ine from the 34 limits of the mining property towards the crosscut or shaft ( ), or from the crosscut and shaft towards the boundaries ( advancing along the strike, down the dip, or against the dip; whether the mining section is d bring in the filling material. Choice of the Stoping Method: Decisive Factors In choosing the s 1) the facility it gives for the breaking out; 2) the amount of mineral broken, i.e. the output; 3) the speed of advance of the face; 4) the possibility of mining all of the economic mineral s or most of them (i.e. to have only slight losses); 5) the possibility of mining clean mineral, not polluting it with waste; 6) the easy access to the slopes and the easy transport of the equipment and material for support; 7) no excessive demands for support, labour or material; 8 ) the facility for transporting the broken ore from the face; 9) the easy bringing in of the waste, and the easy filling of the mine - out cavities, if it is necessary to fill them; 10) the effective and easy ventilation of the stopes; 11) safety of the mine rs: in the stopes the miners are exposed, especially in a) falling fragments of mined mineral and the caving of whole mining breasts and faces; b) the fall of fragments from the hanging wall; c) the danger of boulders from the caved rock sliding down the steep floor; is used, can also roll or slide down the floor; e) the danger of broken ore, mined by crews working higher up, and sliding down th e steep floor. regard to all the requirements quoted. COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT : 1) under the given conditions ‬ при данных условиях 2) one is the most desirable ‬ э тот метод самый подходящий 3) and to the way in which we effect the filling ‬ и каким способом мы производим закладку WORDS TO MEMORIZ E: Nouns: section, cavity, choice, shape, body , knowledge, judgement, experience, boundary Verbs: , distinguish, effect, advance, carry off 35 Adjectives: proper, safe, especial, main, favourable , simple, final, entire EXERCISES: Ι . Group in pairs a) s ynonyms ; b) a ntonyms appropriate dimension to fill unsuitable size inexpensive first safety amount suitable suitable to lift cheap quantity danger finally limit accomplish to fall waste carry out task s ufficient to empty aim boundary clean mineral insufficient II . Give the degrees of comparison : short, cheap, great, small, long, many, much, g ood, well, suitable, sufficient I ΙΙ . An swer the following questions : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What must we consider in choosing the stoping Ι V . Give synonyms to the words: boundary, size, appropriate, accomplis h, task, inexpensive, carry out Ι V. Give antonyms to the words: clean material, to fall, suitable, danger, finally, sufficient, lift TEXT 3 : PRINCIPLES OF MINING Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия: are: shape, size, regularity and dip of the ore body; distribution of ore, strength and physical c haracter of the ore and wall rocks or overlying material; relation of deposit to surface and to other ore bodies or to existing shafts of the same property; availability, character and cost of timber and material for filling. These factors are interdepende should give maximum profit and extraction. impossible, because of their complex relations. Type of stope is used as a basis for classification; the stopes themselves are grouped according to modes of supporting walls and men, as follows: open stopes, shrinkage stopes, filled stopes, timbered 36 stopes o 1 that they may An open stope is a stope in w h ich no timber or filling is used to support walls or men; a finished stope is an open cavity, the walls are supported by pillars of ore, or some simple forms of timbering. The term room - and - pillar covers many leaving pillars at regular intervals; the pillars may b e left of permanent support or recovered by robbing operations. Suitable deposits for exploitation by room - and - pillar are flat or slightly dipping beds of uniform tenor and character, and of large area. Cheap, abundant, strong mineral, and a strong roof an d floor are necessary if permanent pillars are left: where ore in pillars is recovered by robbing, a very strong roof may “hang” over large areas and cause trouble by dropping suddenly. Sublevel stoping was developed in Michigan iron mines, U.S.A. It is an ore mined. It does not permit very effective sorting and is therefore applied where values are fairly uniform. Ore should be strong enough to stand well after trimming. Wal ls must be firm or they will cave prematurely and dilute the ore. driving sublevels; it is best adapted to steep dip s, but has been successful on flat dips too. COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT : ‬ встречается очень большое разнообразие методов разработки WORDS TO MEMORIZ E: Nouns: propert y, open stope, shrinkage stope, filled stope, timbered stope, - and - Verbs: dilute, refer, cover, adapt E XERCISES: Ι . Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Камерно - столбовая система разработки рекомендуется при слегка падающих пластах . 2. Оставлять постоянных целиков не рекомендуется. 3. Мощность покрывающих пород не велика. 4. В открытом забое не используется ни крепление , ни закладка для поддержания стен . 5. Преждевременное обрушение вызывает разубоживание руд. 6. Стоимость добычи тонны руды не велика на этом участке. Ι I . Answer the following questions: 1. mining an ore body? 37 2. 3. 4. 5. ed in modern mining practice? 6. What does a finished open stope represent? 7. What are the walls of the finished stope supported by ? 8. What is the chief feature in a room - and - pillar ? 9. Under what conditions is room - and - pillar applicable? 1 0. What deposits is sub III . Translate with a dictionary: blasting efficiency; specific gravity; tungsten carbide tipped chised bits; tra ckless production hauling equipment; a new 1,552 - ft. 32x8 - ft. 5 - compartment vertical production shaft; reasonable estimates; heavy timber; close spacing of holes; regular intervals; economic road grade; rated number of shots; crude magnetite ore; suspended rock dust. I V. A dialogue: A. Do you know what the origin of the word “Mine” is? B. Sorry, I don‱t. A. Well, then, I once happened to read a book about ancient times and f ound out that the word “mine” dates back to the 5th century B.C. In Greece of that time it meant a certain sum of money, and in Rome it was a silver coin of a fixed value. In India and Egypt about 300 years B.C. “mine” also meant money. From the origin of the word one may follow the development of its modern meaning, namely, “a pit for w orking out some valuable mineral s for the benefit of men”. Sure, there is romance in it. B. I am quite satisfied with your information and in my turn I would like to ask you some question. How would you translate such an expression used in modern speech: “ The novelist has written a little gold mine”? A. exceptionally good. B. I can tell you another interesting expression: “This man is a mine of knowledge”. Tr y to find a good Russian translation of these two expressions. A. I see, you are trying to spring a mine on me, but never mind, I‱ll find the best possible translation of your expressions. TEXT 4 : PRINCIPLES OF MINING Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенн ых слов обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия: Shrinkage stopes are overhand stopes where part of the broken ore remains in the stope as a means of support and affords a working platform until the stope is 38 - bodies it can be ap plied where the ore body itself is self - sustaining across its width and where the walls are sufficiently firm to stand without support over a considerable length along the strike of the vein . The range of dip permi ssible is from 50 to 90 deg 1 . s not confined to wide veins alone but may be applied to narrow steeply inclined veins. With veins of great length, the stopes are usually separated by pillars. In mines with stopes 60 ft. wide along the length of the vein and extending from hanging to foo twall, pillars 42 ft. wide separate the stope. The ve rtical height of a stope depends upon the dip of the vein. With flat veins of moderate thickness and 50 - to 55 - deg. dip a level interval of 150 to 175 ft. is permissible. It is evident that an increased interval between levels prolongs the surplus ore can be drawn off. This ordinarily amounts to 1/3 2 of the broken ore. For every ton of ore produced from a given stope 3 ton s must be broken and 2 tons left in the stope. For ore bodies of moderate length and height it is possible to plan for the winning of the ore body in one stope from a single level. Filled stopes, as the term is us ed here, is the stope in which a support fo r walls an d men and, at times, for the bac k of ore is furnished by waste rock, tailing s or sand, which are called filling. Filling is an integral part of stoping; generally, the ore body is excavated in small sections, filled wholly or in part before the a djacent ground is attack ed. The use of timber, if any 3 , is or tempor ary support of back and Most filled stopping is done in overhand flat back stepped face or rill stopes . The surface of fill is kept roughly para llel to the stope back. As the stope progresses, chutes (usually of timber) are carried up through the fill, giving access to the s tope and delivering the broken o re to the level below. The height of the section mined before filling depends on the characte vary with the size and the shape of the stope and source of fill ing. Modes of arranging haulage ways and of robbing level pillars vary with the strength of walls and ore, and the width of the ore body. In overhand filled stop es, the operations of breaking or cutting a slice from the back of the stope and then filling the excavated area, have led to the wide u se of the term cut and fill. A flat back filled stope is called a horizontal cut and fill; a filled rill stope, an incli ned cut and fill stope . The term filled stope is also applied caving or subsidence . COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT : 1) deg. = degree(s) ‬ градусы 2) 1/3 = one third (a third) ‬ одна трет ья 3) if any = if any timber is used ‬ если используется крепь WORDS TO MEMORIZ E: Nouns: overhand stope, level interval, back tailings, rill stope, flat back fill stope 39 Verbs: confine, draw off, remain Adjectives: temporar y, square, flat, evident EXERCISES: Ι . Translate into English: 1. При системе с закладкой часто используются хвосты для закладки выработанного пространства. 2. Руда выпускается из люков в лежачем боку. 3. П осле отбойки слоя руды производится закладка выра ботанного пространства. 4. Крепления требуется мало. 5. Допустимый диапазон падения рудного тела от 5 0˚ до 90˚. TEXT 5 : PRINCIPLES OF MINING Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов обратитесь к словарю в конце посо бия: undercut and t hen broken down by its weight or by the weight of the overlying rock, or by a combination of both. But as a result of custom, operations involving ca ving of the mate rial overlying an ore body, as a systematic and essential part of the work, are also classed as caving methods, though practically all the ore is sublevel caving , block caving and top - slicing , result from this classification, each having many modifications. Top - Slicing: - The field of use is in wide veins, masses, or thick beds of weak ore, where clean mining and high extraction are desired. Each floor is mined in small sections, the roof of each bein g allowed or forced to cave before an adj acent one is attacked 1 . The work on each floor retreats from the limits of ore toward the points of an entry; all the ore is broken by blasting. Subl evel Caving, a logi cal development of top - slicing. Suitable ore b odies are wide deposits of moderately soft or moderately firm ore, overlain by ground which will cave readily but coarsely, to form a capping which will arch and support itself temporarily over small openings. The latter condition is neither necessary no r desirable in top - slicing. - slicing in that the ore is mined in horizontal slices in descending order, so that the overburden, or capping, will break up and subside as the ore beneath is removed. Fundamental difference is that the h eight of slices in sublevel caving is usually 15 - 25 ft. as against 10 - 12 in top - slicing. Timbered slice drifts are driven as in top - slicing, but a back of ore 7 - 15 ft. thick is mat , this back of ore being removed by mining and caving, starting at the far end of the slice drift and 40 Block Caving. Large sections or blocks of the ore height of 400 ft. or more, are successively undercut and allowed to slough a nd cave above the undercut portion. Drawing off the caved ore causes further caving, often aided and controlled as to its lateral extent by weakening the boundaries of the block by narrow shrinkage stopes or superimposed cut off drifts . The ore is caved an d crushed by its own weight and the weight of the overly ing capping into pieces of suita ble size for handling. Caving usually extends eventual ly to the surface, the overburde Drawing continues unti l the appearance of overburden material at drawpoints caving through gradual increase of the height of ore caved in operation. Suitable ore bodies are wide veins, thick beds, o r massive deposits of homogeneous ore, overlain by ground which will cave readily. The ore must be such that it can be supported while blocks are developed and undercut, and will break up when caved. To increase the rate of caving and for mining hard rock s which do not break drilling to assist in breaking the ground. COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT : 1) the roof of each being allowed or forced to cave before an adjacent one is attacked ‬ причем кровля каждой обрушается сама по себе или принудительно , прежде чем приступить к разработке следующего слоя WORDS TO MEMORIZ E: Nouns: slice, top - slicing, capping, forced block caving Verbs: undercut, arch, subside, cut off, blast, drill, involve Adjectives: essential, distinct, rare, suitable, moderate, coarse Expressions: strictly speaking, eventually EXERCISES: I . Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Система этажного обрушения имеет широкое применение . 2. Руда отрабатывается горизонтальными слоями сверху вниз. 3. Подэтажное обрушение обеспечивает высокий процент извлечения руды. 4. Выемка ведется от границ шахтного поля. 5. На этом участке руда легко о брушается. II . Answer the following questions: 2 . What does a finished open stope look like? 3 . What ore bodies is s h rinkage stoping confined to? 4 . What kind of material is used as filling? 41 5 . How does mining progress use 6 . Where was sublevel caving first introduced? 7 those in top - slicing? 8 . Is block caving a popular mining system? 9 . W hat does the ap pearance of overburden material at drawpoints show? 1 0 . What is the advantage of forced caving? III . Translate the following sentence s with the help of a dictionary: The most significant development which took place in Canada du ring the Algoma district uranium mines from all - trackless mining to other systems employing track haulage. The change - over has necessarily added appreciably to the cost of the plants , entailing the purchase of locomotives, cars, and rails, and for some mines of new stope production equipment such as lightweight drills, drill steel, and slushers. Another large item of expense is in the additional rock work required ‬ footwall and main haulage drifts, box - holes, and ore passes. A big advantage of the room - and - pillar system originally planned is the absence of development work as such, since almost all work is done in ore with costs paid for by the contained value of the ore removed. 42 ТЕК СТЫ ДЛЯ ДОМАШНЕГО ЧТЕНИЯ R OCKS A rock is a mineral or aggregate of minerals forming on essential part of the considered as rocks. Of about 1000 species of minerals, only 20 or 3 0 are important as rock constituents. T hree great classes of rocks are: igneous, solidified from fusion; altered igneous and sedimentary rocks, whose original character has be en obscured. It is held that igneous rocks have been the predecessors and source of all others. Rock forming minerals comprise silicates, oxides, carbonates, sulphates, chlorides, phosphates, sulphides, and native elements. O CCURRENCE The principal subst ances which we obtain from the earth‱s crust are the required for various chemical manufactures. The deposits of these various substances occur in the earth‱s crust in var ious ways; for the purpose of the miners 1 they may be conveniently classed, according to their shape, into: Ι . Tabular, and ΙΙ . Non - tabular. The tabular de posits may then be subdivided ac cording to their origin into two classes: (1) Beds; (2) Ve ins. For 2 the non - tabular deposits may be called (3) Masses. The classification, therefore, stan d s thus: Ι . Ta bular or sheet - like deposits. 1. Beds. 2. Veins. 3. Masses. ΙΙ . Non - tabular deposits COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT 1) for the purpose of the miners ‬ для инженера горняка 2) for want of a better word ‬ за неимением лучшего термина (1) B EDS OR SEAMS A “bed” or “seam” is simply some special member of a group of stratified rocks; in other words, it has been formed as a layer at the bottom of some sea, lake, or river by the deposition of mud, sand or stones, by the evaporation of saline solutions, or by The terms “dip” and “strike” are used with precisely the same meanings as are given to them by the geologist. Dip: When a bed or stratum is tilted so as to be inclined in some direction, the direction of the i nclination is called dip. Strike: The horizontal line along the tilted stratum is called the strike, and it is always at right angles to the dip. 43 The stratum immediately above a bed or seam which is being worked is usually known as the “roof”, and the stra tum lying underneath it is called the “floor” or “pavement”. Many of the most important mineral deposits in the world are beds but enough, nevertheless, to make its extracti on commercially profitable 1 . COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT 1) commercially profitable ‬ экономически выгодный (2) MINERAL VEINS A “vein” or “lode” is a tabular body of mineral which has been formed subsequently to the rocks which enclose it. The vein locks as if it had been formed by the growth of layers of mineral parallel to the sides of a crack or fissure in rocks which had already become hard and solid. The fissure furnished a channel for mineral solutions which altered the rocks at its sides and so produced a sheet of ore - bearing material. The vein may oven be a body of fault - breccia or fault - conglomerate cemented by minerals which have been deposited in the interspaces which originally existed between the fragments, and in the cracks which traversed them. Whe n the deposit can cla im to be of sedimentary origin 1 irrespective of its valuable ingredient, it is most appropriate to designate it as a “bed” or “seam” in Like a bed, a vein has its dip and strike; but as the dip of the vein is generally great, it is often measured from the vertical, and is then spoken of as 2 the underlie, underlay, or hade. The bounding planes of a vein, are called the walls or checks, and they are frequently smooth or striated, showing that one side must have slid against the other. The wall above a lode is called the handing wall, the one underneath, the foot wall. The rock surrounding and enclosing the lode is called the country. Veins are of less uniform productivene ss than beds, and are ra rely worth working throughout 3 . Rich portion alternate with poor or worthless portions. COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT 1) when the deposit can claim to be of sedimentary origin ‬ когда месторождение можно рассматривать как осадочное по происхождению 2) it is often measured from the vertic al , and is then spoken of as ‬ оно часто измеряется от вертикали и его называют отклонением, падением или наклоном жилы 3) and are rarely worth wo rking throughout ‬ редко их выгодно разрабатывать полностью (3) M ASSES The term “masses” is simply used to deposits which are neither beds nor veins. It brings together 1 a very heterogeneous series of mineral deposits, such as 44 granite and other igneous ro cks from which we obtain supplies of building stone and the irregular bodies of haematite. Here, too, are placed the so - called “stock works”, i.e. portions so interpenetrated by a network of small veins that the whole of the material has to be excavated in order to extract the ore with profit. COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT 1) It brings together ‬ так называют BORING The principal purposes for which the miner employs boring are as follows: (a) To ascertain the nature of a mineral deposit, its depth from surface, thickness, dip and strike. ( c) To obtain gaseous minerals, such as natural inflam mable gas, carbonic acid gas, vapours containing boric acid. (d) To drain off gas from rocks, and water or gas from mine workings. (e) To make passages for conveying power into underground workings by st eam water, wire ropes, or electricity. (f) To introduce pipes carrying a freezing solution. (g) To excavate mine shafts. There are following : 1. Rotary drilling. 2. Diamond drilling. 3. Rope and churn drilling. 4. Hydraulic rota ry. 5. Jetting (1) B ORING BY ROTATION Soft rocks, such as clay, soft shale, sandy clay, and sand can be bored by an open auger like the common carpenter‱s tool. As the hole is deepened, the handle has to be lengthened aft er the fashion of the wel l - known chimney - sweep‱s brush 1 . But the rocks most commonly explored by the miner are too hard for such augers, and are attacked by tools in the form of hollow cylinders armed with diamonds or with steel teeth. The working part of the diamond drill consists of a short hollow cylinder of cast steel, at one end of which a number of black diamonds are fastened in small cavities. The crown is screwed on to wrought - iron pipes, which are made to rotate, with the result that an annular gro ove is cut at the bottom of the hole, leaving a core. The sand and mud formed by the abrasive action of the diamonds are carried up by the stream of water pumped down the rods, which ascends through the annular space around them. Small diamond drills, whi ch will bore in any direction, and which are driven by hand, compressed air, or electricity, are largely used both above and below ground for prospecting. Exploration by these little machines is very decidedly cheaper than by driving or sinking by hand in hard rocks, and fully ten times as quick 2 . On the other hand, the ground is not opened out as it would be by a shaft or drift, and the sample furnished is but small 3 . 45 The Calyx drill works in the same manner as the diamond drill, but the annular groove is cut by steel teeth instead of diamonds. COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT 1) the handle has to be lengthened after the fashion of the we ll - known chimney - sweep‱s brush ‬ рукоять нужно удлинить подобно щетке для чистки дымоходов 2) and fully ten times as quick ‬ и в 1 0 раз быстрее 3) and the sample furnished is but small ‬ и получается только небольшой образец / проба / (2) B ORING BY PERCUSSION WITH RODS The rods are made of iron. An ordinary boring plant consists of the cutting tool, the rods, a suitable frame - work or derrick for the purpose of conveniently raising and lowering them, and the necessary driving machinery; in addition, there must be cleaning tools, and appliances for remedying accidents, lining the boreholes, and obtaining samples of the rocks traversed. T he actual cutting tool is usually a chisel of some kind. For soft rocks the edge is straight; for hard rocks there are wings to guide the tool and keep the hole vertical, or even special guides above it. The lengthening bars or rods are made of iron of squ are section. The usual mode of connection is a screw joint, care being taken to have all the bars alike, so that any two bars can be screwed together 1 . COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT 1) care being taken to have all the bars alike, so that any two bars can be scre wed together ‬ нужно следить , чтобы все штанги были одинаковы , так чтобы можно было соединить любые S EQUENCE OF BEDS One of the most important discoveries made by geologists, and one which is moreover of the greater importance for applied geology and mining, is the disc overy of the order in the sequence of beds and of the permanent position of the beds in this sequence. Beds and strata were formed in accordance with the conditions which prevailed at the time of their formation at the place where they were deposited. Thes e conditions vary with time and locality. Thus in one and the same place beds of a different composition were deposited one above the other, but they form a certain order of sequence. In each place we can determine this sequence of beds and we can then den ote the individual beds or groups of beds either by figures, remains) found in them. Usually we call the beds after the locality in which they are characteristically develope d. When we say “Staffordian Beds” we do not wish to imply that all beds 46 in the Stafford area are “Staffordian Beds”. This name is restricted to certain groups of beds. Other groups can be and are developed at Stafford, and then Staffordian Beds are also de veloped elsewhere. The formation of ore or coal or any mineral takes place in the same way as that of any other beds and is dependent on the special conditions prevailing at the time and place where the layer of the mineral or rock was formed. Thus the occ urrence of these minerals and rocks in the sequence is bound to a certain position and occurs only in this position provided that the conditions for its formation did not repeat themselves at another time, which, however, was often the case. Then several d eposits were formed, one above the other, but again these deposits maintain a definite position in the sequence, and generally they differ somewhat from each other because the conditions under which they were formed were not exactly the same. DIP AND STRI KE By far the greater number of deposits is more or less even, tabular bodies. line of maximum inclination, i.e. by the dip of the deposit, and (2) by a horizontal line, i.e . the contour line or strike of the deposit or stratum. The strike is the position of a horizontal line drawn through the deposit or the line of intersection of a horizontal plane with the deposit. The dip is determined by the position of the line of maxim um inclination. Dip and strike are indicated in maps by the sign of dip and strike and are given in degrees. Strike is measured clockwise from the north, and dip from the horizontal plane. Many deposits are of course not regular of the most varied shapes, more or less irregular. We always try to substitute for them bodies delimited by regular planes, but planes which approach as much as possible to their real position and shape. It is customary to call deposits and coal seams wit h a dip up to 5˚ flat - lying, seams from 5˚ to 25˚ gently inclined, a dip of 25˚ to 40˚ medium inclined, from 40˚ to 60˚ steeply inclined, and from 60˚ to 90˚ vertical. W HAT IMPORTANCE HAVE SHAPE AND POSITION OF A DEPOSIT ? In a deposit one of the most impo rtant features which influences all mining work is the shape of the deposit and its position in the earth‱s crust. It goes without saying that a deposit will be prospected and investigated differently when it has the shape of a horizontal stratum or when i t forms an irregular aggregate in the parent and therefore the most important feature to be carefully investigated before starting mining is the shape and position of the depos it. As shape depends on origin, it is important in the study of mineral deposits to investigate the manner of their formation and the course of later changes which occurred in geological times. Geology, aided today by geophysics and geochemistry, deals wit h these questions. 47 C OMPOSITION OF THE DEPOSIT When exploring a new occurrence of a mineral it is our first task to ted depend on these factors. A coal with a heating value of 6,500 calories and a low ash content, which is firm, does not crumble in transportation and storing, and yields 90% of lumps and only 10%of fines an 1 that a coal whic h has only 3,000 calories, crumbles into dust after extraction, is inclined to spontaneous combustion and has a high ash content. An iron ore mine containing 65% of iron, with or without sulphur and without phosphorus, and with little quarts, will have qui te another value than a mine with iron ore which contains only 35% of iron in addition to an admixture of sulphur and phosphorus and which is high in quartz. Similar considerations operate with regard to all ores and minerals. In all of is not too low for mining, in which case the ore would be uneconomic to work. What is not payable in one place and in one mine may yield considerable profit elsewhere under different conditio ns. Cost of production depends on the quality or the rocks, the cost of labour, of energy, of extraction, of the necessary installations and materials. The cost of transportation is also of decisive importance. However, not only is the percentage of the mi neral content in the deposit decisive, but also the presence of substances which may have a favourable or an general, on use, o called desirable and undesirable substances. COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT 1) to fetch a high price ‬ продавать за высокую цену T HICKNESS OF A DEPOSIT A further important task is the investigation of the thickness of the deposit, i.e. the perpendicular distance between the roof and the floor or simply its strength. The payability depends to a considerable extent on the thickness. When the thickness as below a certain limit, the deposit is not payable, although much depends, of course, on the price of mineral mined. Thus coal sea ms, even if good in quality and in a good position, cannot be mined profitably when their thickness is less than 1.5 ft. For deposits of iron ores 2 ft. to 3 ft. are given as the limit according to local conditions and the quality of the ore: for pyrite, a bout 2 ft. Deposits of cheap substances, such as limestone, glass, sand, etc., have to be very thick to be payable. On the other hand, veins of valuable ores such as auriferous ores, uranium ores, cassiterite, argentiferous ores, and mercury ores, can be q uite Thickness is also the most important element determining the reserves of a mineral and therefore the quantity of the output. Thus a deposit 10 m thick and of one squar 48 whereas a deposit of the same area, but only 0.5 m thick, contains only 500,000 a greater output tha n with small reserves. dependent on the thickness of the deposit as we shall see later. Deposits of similar nature, content and dip are worked differently when 60 ft. or when 1 ft. thick. S IZE OF A DEPOSIT : M INERAL RESERVES To judge the possibilities of exploitation and to evaluate a deposit it is the reserves of the mineral, and thus also the value of the deposit, and the scale and the daily output is 30 truckloads of 20 tons each, i.e. 1,000 tons per day, and if the year has 300 working days, the annual output is 300,000 tons, and the coal reserve will last for ten years. I NTERCALATIONS Very many sedimentary deposits, especially c oal seams, are not pure, as the mineral is interstratified with thin layers of barren material. seam and its mineral reserve, we have to take these intercalations into account and subtract them from the total thickness or from the total quantity. Intercalations, of course, make working more expensive, as we have to extract them together with the mineral. On the other hand they often supply us with the necessary waste to fill in work ed - out areas or, when they are soft, a suitable place to make a cut. Thus they may facilitate extraction. R OOF AND FLOOR : O VERLYING AND UNDERLYING ROCKS It is not only important to study the mineral deposit itself. To judge the od of extraction, and for the exploration of the deposit it is also very important to know the overlying and underlying strata. The beds situated above a deposit are called the overlying beds, the rocks situated under a deposit are the underlying beds. We use the terms hanging wall and footwall in connection with faults, levels and drifts, veins, and, in general, in connection with any place in a mine. The beds lying directly above the mining operations are called the roof, and the beds directly below them the floor. It is certainly of great importance whether the roof is massive, firm, crumbly rocks , especially quicksand, i.e. sands saturated with water. They are also dangerous in the floor. The permeability of the overlying rocks is also of great importance. Floors will swell in contact, with air and especially with water, and thus warp the mine rai lways laid down on them, making working more difficult. 49 The mode of exploitation, the rate of progress and the costs of sinking shafts and drifting are, of course, dependent to a large extent on the nature of the rocks through which they are cut, as goes without saying. The manner of support depends on the nature of the rocks into which the shaft is sunk or the level or drift cut. DEVELOPMENT, SHAFT SINKING AND DRIFTING 1. General Principles of Development Development has for its fundamental purpose the d elineation of the ore body and its preparation for working. From the development workings, the shape, position, approximate quantity, approximate average value and the physical characteristics of the ore and enclosing wall rocks are determined. Variations in the employed in its treatment can also be determined. Certain types of ore deposits such as flat bodies of iron ore, lenses and sheets of lead and zinc and the porphyry copper deposits admit of preliminary deposits such as coal, salt, gypsum and the like can be as satisf actorily developed developed by boring, and underground workings are the best. In all cases a preliminar y geological study is essential, and in most cases will conclusively Development workings consisting of shafts, drifts, crosscuts, raises, etc., are generally driven in ore, and where this is the case, the development is called “productive development”. More or less work is however, driven in the country rock and to this the term “dead work” is applied. From economic considerations the minimum amou nt of this kind of work should be done. Development workings cost more per unit excavated than stoping and for this reason development should be planned to make accessible the maximum quantity of ore from minimum volume of development workings. W h ere the l considerable saving in initial capital results. 2. Development Workings The principal working opening of a mine may be an edit, entry slope, incline or a vertical shaft. Good mining practice requires the construction and mainten ance of at least one other opening which may serve for ventilation and as an emergency by topographic conditions and the position and general character of the deposit. In the case of a narrow vein dipping at a steep angle and a surface vertical, an incline in the foot wall or an incline in the plane of the vein. The vertical shaft gives the gre atest vertical depth for the least footage, but requires the 50 driving of long crosscuts to the vein at points above and below the intersection of shaft and vein. The principal objections to the vertical shaft are its position in the hanging wall which is of ten unstable, the long crosscuts and the difficulty of maintenance at the intersection at the vein and shaft. The necessity of locating the shaft mouth at a site suitable for the surface plant and for convenient access often overbalances the above mentione d conditions. UNDERGROUND MINING 1. General operations involved in excavation, support and the handling of ore and waste. received names somewha t different signification than in other mining districts. In general it is - - pit or open - - Placer - T again generally classified as those using open stopes, timbered stopes, filled stopes and shrinkage s particular ore body, for there are so man y variations occurring in nature. Amongst mentioned shape, size, dip and regularity of ore body; physical and mineralogical character of ore; value of ore; character of wall rocks and overlying surface, and availability character and coat of timber and material for filling. The future working of the deposit at depth is another consideration which must not be in the upper portions of the deposit may very greatly hinder the deep mining operations. attitude of the ore body and the strength of its ore and wall rocks. From those a choice may be economic and local conditions. But it should be kept in mind that the mining compromise between conflicting factors . 2. mineral which occurs as a bedded deposit, it is used principally for mining coal. The description which follows applies therefore particularly t o coal deposits. 51 Coal seams ranging from 4 to 12 ft. thick and from 0˚to 30˚ dip and at depth excavated, starting from a side or butt - entry. This may be driven at right angles to the e ntry or inclined, at any angle from a right angle to 45˚. A neighbouring room is taken off separated by a rib or pillar. As the rooms are extended short drifts of break - throughs are driven through the ribs for the purpose of ventilation. Other rooms are st arted in sequence. The rooms are 250 to 300 ft. long and extend up to a pillar which separates them from the next side entry. A track is laid in the center of each room. The coal is loaded into cars by shoveling. As soon as a number of rooms on one entry h the rooms, beginning on the rib between rooms 1 and 2. This is worked back toward the entry and as soon as it is well advanced the next rib is started and so on. o start a drift through the rib leaving a protecting pillar on the end. The drift is timbered by props and head boards. The protecting pillar is then attacked and removed in slices parallel with the drift. Temporary props are put in. When as much of the pr otecting pillar as can be over the original room and the portion mined out in the rib. Rib drawing can be started at any point in the mine providing the work is started at the end s of the is roomed out to the boundaries and the s takes place: in the other, rib drawing is begun almost as soon as two or three rooms have been In determining the width of room and pillar, two tendencies of practice are to be noted. In the one the room is made as wide and the rib as narrow as possible. The primary object of this is to secure as much coal as possible on the first working, even sacrificing the coal l eft in the ribs. This policy makes the drawing of the ri b s and creep and crush may cause the mine to be lost. This practice is to be condemned. The other is to leave the rib s of ample width and to secure a moderate amount of coal only in the first working. The remaining coal may be won on the second working or rib drawing. mine is worked as a comple te unit, pillars only being used to protect the main and side entries. In the second the mine is divided into large panels and each panel is best practice while the former i s only of use in small mines. The primary reason for panel working is the prevention of squeezes and the localization of accidents, principally explosions. With a steep dip the ro om is driven at an angle in order to reduce the grade. Where the dip exceeds 6 or 8 deg., the rooms are usually driven up it and the care drawn up to the working face by gravity trams, two tracks being used, the loaded car 52 hauling up the empty one. In some mines the room direction with reference to the cleat has an important influence upon the production of the maximum amount of lump coal. SCRAPING Within the last few years scrapers of various designs have been successfully ines. Scraping is a very simple mechanical operation. The necessaries are: a scraper of design appropriate to the conditions, a portable engine, a power line (air or electricity) and a mill hole, chute or hopper to load into, or, as an alternative, a scrap ing platform so high that mineral can be scraped directly into the car. As a rule a double - drum engine is used with main and tail rope haul, the head sheave for the return of the tail rope being suspended over the muck pile. The two main types of scrapers are hoe type and box type scrapers, the light slip scraper being less commonly used. Hoe and box type scrapers have all kinds of variations in their design, these dependent upon local conditions. In fact many scrapers are designed for particular mines and cannot work successfully if transferred to another mine, unless the conditions are exactly the s ame; which is rarely the case 1 . The motive power for scrapers is usually a single or double - drum hoist of portable or semi - portable type. As mentioned before, d ouble - drum hoists are in common use, the rate of h.p. ranging from 5 to 35 h.p. depending upon the tonnage to be scraped and the type of scraper to be used. In designing a scraper three conditions primarily affect the selection of size and type of scraper : the structure and position of the ore body as affecting the unit operation, and the texture and other physical conditions of the broken ore. factors must be taken into account. These are, weight, angle of cutting edge, direction of the line of pull, and stability. The scraper must be heavy enough to stand the strain of ope ration, so that it is able to di g in easily and to take its load quickly, - sized operation to be handled at the face by one man. The effective digging weight of the lighter scrapers is increased by the weight of the miner, who rides the scraper while it is taking its load. COMMENTERY TO THE TEXT 1) wh ich is rarely the case ‬ что редко имеет место TIMBERING Timber is the commonest and cheapest material for mine support, short life being its objectionable feature. To eliminate this objection chemical treatment has been introduced and many engineers advocate it. The simplest tim ber construction consists of a cap supported by vertical prevent small pieces of rock from falling into the mine. The section of the set is 53 mines. Sills are used where an inse cure foundation gives trouble 1 . They are placed either across the working or placed at a maximum distance apart, the spacing problem bei ng wholly dependent upon the pressure condition. the side walls are also used. Timber cribs are constructed by laying two square or round timber pieces on the ground at a conv enient distance apart and placing two other timbers across the ends of the first two. This is repeated until the desired height is reached. The cribs may be constructed rectangular or triangular in section. The square set is composed of a cap, a girt, and so as to form a solid 90˚ angle. They are framed at the intersections so as to form a the intersections so as to form a compressed joint and join by three similar framework composed of vertical and horizontal members at right angles is the whi ch is temporarily blocked and wedged fast. Braces or sprags are required in almost all kinds of timbering in order to provide against side thrusts and to steady important members until the weight holds them in place. Wedges are used in all timbering operat ions principally to hold the prop, cap or other members firmly until ground pressure develops sufficiently to hold the timber in place. For fitting in irregularities between the timber and the wall rock they are of great use. COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT 1) giv es trouble ‬ вызывает опасения MATERIALS USED IN SUPPORT OF MINE WORKINGS Steel, brick, stone, concrete and cast iron are used either alone or in combination for the construction of mine supports. From a structural standpoint steel is an ideal material. Its cost and t he greater amount or difficulty and skill required in its use are objections. It is also subject to corrosion and where used in the presence of water and particularly of acid water, must be painted with suitable protective paints. Where permanency is the m ost important consideration, masonry, either than other forms of masonry for mine support, and particularly where the structural th. The simplest structure of steel and masonry combination is a brick wall on either side of the drift, and steel H - or I - beams across. The lagging rests in the steel - beams. 54 For st eel support steel rails, H - beams, I - constructed entirely of steel and used to support lagging are employed in permanent openings. They have the objection of greater difficulty in cutting when variable length is required f or the “posts”. The set can be designed along the lines of the timber set or may consist of curved and arched members. In masonry support brick, dry walling and concrete are the materials most used. The section is necessarily one in which there is absence of tensile strength. For this reason, semi - circular, elliptical, oval and circular section are used. The inelastic nature of masonry requires that the structure be built strong enough to carry the loads, or else compressible material such as timber must b e interposed Reinforced concrete is coming into considerable use and where permanence is desired is one of the most satisfactory materials. Like masonry, sections have to be design ed which are reasonably tree from tensile stress. The sections used are of the same general nature as those used in masonry construction. PUMPING is pumping. The system consists of a sump, the pump, the prime mover, the suction pipe and the column pipe. The accessories are steam or compressed air pipes, electrical power conduits, valves, switches, indicators, etc. the separate pumping units may be distributed in different parts of a mine, but are usually concentrated at the most important or deepest working shafts. In shallow mines the installation can bring the water to the surface in one lift, but in deeper mines several units in tandem may be required to lift the water. Where ther e are a number of levels in a mine the water from each level may be conducted to a sump on that level on which a station pump is placed. In shaft sinking temporary pumps are used and these lift from the shaft sump to the nearest station pump. To collect th e water trickling down the shaft, water rings are place in the shaft below the points of inflow and the water transferred by a pipe to the nearest sump. Station pumps are permanent installations. The sump is constructed in the shaft bottom or at a point co nveniently near the shaft. It is excavated below the floor of the level or may consist of a wooden tank placed below the pump station floor. In the latter case the water supplied by the level must be conducted to a separate sump and pumped into the tank, o r conducted down the shaft in pipes to the shaft sump and pumped into the tank of the next station pump level, and to receive in it all the drainage from the level and the wo rkings below the next station pump above. Sump capacity is varied to suit the mine conditions. Large sump capacity at the lowest unit is desirable, since, in the event of the failure to the power, the flooding of the lowest level can be avoided. At interme diate pumping stations the sump should be large enough to insure the steady operation of the pump and to receive the flow from the level for a short time. Pumps used for mine drainage may 55 be of plunger or centrifugal type. The choice is dependent on the wa ter head and the shaft depth. VENTILATION ventilation. The prevalency of open stopes and connecting workings is very favorable for natural ventilation. Where the air is bad, raises are dr iven or small fans and pipes are used. The increasing depth and extent of large mines have made power ventilation necessary in many cases. At first, coal mining practice was followed an large fans were connected to the upcast shaft. This practice is still followed. The small, large capacity, high - speed fan has made it possible to place the fan underground. This is a good arrangement. The fan can be so placed as to divide the mine into two parts, one of which is characterized by the downward movement and the other by the upward movement of the air. The fan draws air from one side and forces it through the other side of the upcast. With this arrangement both downcast and upcast shafts are open. systematically planned before opening up the mine. Provision is made for upcast and downcast shafts and air ways. The quantity of air for the mine is determined by the probable maximum daily output. With this factor, the permissible velocities and the leng ths of the air - ways and the cross - section of main and side entries are and type of fan required. UNDERGROUND HAULAGE 1. General the stopes requires at least two transfers. The ore is shoveled or scraped into chutes, or where the horizontal distance in the stope is large it is shoveled into a small mine car and trammed to the chutes. The chute is vertical or inclined at an angle su fficient to deliver the ore to a lower point, from which is drawn off and loaded into cars. The cars are trammed or hauled along the level to the shaft and are there dumped into a skip - loading cage and hoisted to the surface. Where main - level haulage is us ed and a deposit of considerable vertical range is worked the ore may be gathered by chutes connecting several levels. The advantage of main - level haulage consists in the concentration of hoisting operations upon one level instead of number. Each working level requires its equipment of track, cars and chutes. If power haulage is used upon the levels each level must be equipped with the necessary appliances. working level and the mine car s can be brought to the face and loaded. The the cars must be taken from the faces, delivered to the shaft bottom, loaded upon the cages and hoisted. The tonnages handled are us mine tonnages and range from 500 to 5000 tons per day. 56 Haulage in coal mines is divided into “gathering service”, which is the removal of the cars from the working faces, and main haulage. In the main haulage the trains of car s which are made up at the partings are hauled either directly to the tipple or to the shaft bottom. such that it is now considered as the best form of mine haulage. Two types of electric locomotives can be applied. The trolley type locomotive requires a track system that is bonded, a trolley wire suspended directly over or at one side above the track, a moto r - to supply continuous current, conducting wires and switch and instrument board. The voltage range from 250 to 500 volts. This system cannot be applied in small crooked drifts and gaseous coal mines. The system is economical in power consump tion and is readily operated. The electric storage battery locomotive does not require a bonded track and can be operated wherever there is a track. The system is very elastic in that the locomotive can be operated throughout the mine by transferring it f rom level to level. The trolley wire is avoided. The charging plant consists of a motor - connecting leads. With properly protected electrical equipment it can be used in gaseous coal mines. The storage battery locomotive is very suitable for small tonnages and short hauls. For long distances and large tonnages the trolley type locomotive is preferable. SURFACE ARRANGEMENT Surface edifices at the mines ordinarily consist of a headframe, change house and office, shop building, hoist and compressor buildings. The location of these buildings mostly depends on the size of the mine, climatic and ground conditions. The relative position of the headframe and hoist depend upon the type of hoist used, and indirectly upon the dimensions of the drum. The angle which the hoisting rope makes with the head sheave plane is called the fleet angle and is limited to a maximum of 2%. The hoist must therefore be placed far enough away from shaft collar to avoid a larger angle. In Ger installed in the head frame, but this depends upon the conditions existing at the individual mine. Headframes are constructed of steel or timber, the former being used on long lived mines where the first cost favors this materi al. The height of the head frame ranges from 40 to 185 ft. Deep shafts in which rapid hoisting is to be done require ample vertical height. Where moderate speed hoisting is used the height limitation HOISTING tilting deck hoisting and skip hoisting. Cage hoisting is used in small mines where the equipment cost must be kept at a minimum. It is used in many coal mines 57 r large capacity. In all cases where it is used the cars on the deck of the cage are removed at the landing point. A large amount of labor is necessarily required. The tilting deck cage is only used in coal mining practice. It obviates the necessity of rem oving the cars from the deck of the surface. End - door cars must be used. At the unloading point the deck of the cage is automatically tilted, the door of the car raised, and the contents of the car discharged into a chute. The capacity of a hoisting plant deck can be used. For mines of moderate depth this limitation is not serious, but for mines of considerable depth multi - deck cages and cage hoisting are necessary, in order to obtain s ufficient capacity. deep workings. The skips are loaded from chutes and automatically discharged at ha ndling, but is seldom used in coal mining practice on account of the breakage and dust produced by the double handling of the coal. There are four systems of hoisting in use. Unbalanced or single - rope hoisting is characteristic of small installations such as are used in mines of limited output, prospects, auxiliary hoisting and mines in process of development. Partially balanced or two - rope hoisting is used to a greater extent than any other system. It r metal mines and for shallow and deep working. Balanced or two - rope hoisting with tail rope has the important mechanical advantage of a counter - balanced system throughout the hoist. Overbalanced hoisting is used only for single - cage or skip hoisting, wher e the capacity is small and economy demands the minimum consumption of power. At present the tendency is to equip all hoists with electric drive as it has been shown to be more efficient than steam or air - hoists. The electrical driven hoist falls into two types ‬ the direct - current motor - interposed between the motor and the drum shaft. The second type admits the use of th e alternating current motor. 58 АННО ТАЦИЯ НАУЧНОЙ СТАТЬИ A BSTRACT Аннотацией называется краткое и вместе с тем исчерпывающее изложение содержания научной статьи, помещаемое непосредственно после заглавия и понятное возможно более широкому кругу читателей. Как правило, аннотация не содерж ит каких - либо формул или цифровых данных, имеет объем, не превышающий 1200 - 1600 печатных знаков, и является законченной логической единицей, дающей читателю возможность обоснованно решить, следует ему читать данную научную статью или нет. По сравнению с ос тальным текстом научной статьи аннотация набирается более мелким жирным шрифтом и по объему вводимой информации занимает промежуточное положение между заглавием и введением . В аннотации помещаются сведения об общем направлении, задачах и целях исследовани я, приводится более конкретное описание тематики работ, выполненных данным автором, поясняется метод исследования, кратко излагаются полученные теоретические и экспериментальные результаты и формулируются общие выводы, которые можно сделать на основании эт их результатов. По своему содержанию и методам исследования аннотации научных статей подразделяются на три основных типа: (а) Аннотации научных статей, излагающих результаты оригинальных теоретических и (или) экспериментальных исследований, выполненных ав торами; (б) Аннотации обобщающих научных статей, посвященных распространению полученных результатов на другие области и занимающих промежуточное положение между оригинальными исследованиями и обзорами литературы; (в) Аннотации обзорных научных статей. Дл я аннотаций оригинальных научных статей, содержащих результаты научных исследований, выполненных непосредственно автором, характерны следующие типовые структурные формы и обороты: 1 . ... are presented ‬ Приводятся результаты теоретического (экспериментального) исследования... 2. It is shown that ... ‬ Показано , что ... 3 . A theoretical (experimental) depend ence of... vs... is formulated ‬ Формулируется теоретическая (полученная экспериментально) завис имость... от... 4. Recomm endations for ... are presented ‬ Приводятся рекомендации по ... 5. Conclusions regarding ... are made ( arrived а t ) ‬ Делаются выводы о том , что ... Аннотации обобщающих научных статей по своим лексико - стилистическим особенностям занимают промежуточное положение между аннотациями оригинальных и обзорных научных статей и, помимо характерных для этих двух категорий типовых структурных форм, могут также содержать специфические для данной категории типовые структурные формы, такие как: 59 1. In this general paper th e role of ... in ... is discussed ‬ B данной обобщающей научной статье рассматривается роль ... в ... 2. The extension of ... and possibility of its practical app lication to ... are considered ‬ Рассматриваются распространение .. . на ... и возможность его практического приложения к ... 3. A generalized vers ion of ... for ... is introduced ‬ Вводится обобщенный вариант ... для ... 4. Subject matter related to ... as well as to ... is considered ‬ Обсуждаются вопросы , относящиеся как к ..., так и к ... Для аннотаций обзорных научных статей, содержащих обзор (или сопоставительный анализ) результатов, полуденных другими исследователями, характерны следующие типовые структурные формы и обороты: 1. A review of ... essentia l for ... is pr esented ‬ Приводится обзор ..., представляющих интерес для ... 2. Present status and theoretical ( experimental , test ) results of ... are summarized ‬ Рассматривается современное состояние и приводятся результаты теоретических исследований (экспериментально й проверки, натурных испытаний)... 3 . The current resear ch programs for... are outlined ‬ Приводится обзор проводимых в настоящее время исследований по... 4. The factors ( ) considered include ... ‬ Рассмотрено влияние таких факторов ( параметров ), как ... 5. for ... ‬ Особое внимание уделяется ... методам ( способам решения ), применяемым ... для ... 6. A bibliography of ... references is included ‬ Библиография включает ... наименований . Внешними признаками оригинальной научной статьи могут являться: наличие снабженного сквозной нумерацией развитого математического аппарата; большой объем иллюстративно - графических материалов; сравнительно небольшая библиография, в состав кот орой входят предыдущие публикации автора и объем которой не превышaer 8 - 10 наименований. Авторами оригинальных научных статей обычно оказываются работники низших и средних иерархических уровней (Design Engineer, Research Engineer, Analytical Engineer, Stru ctural Engineer, System Engineer, Member of the Technical Staff). Внешними признаками обобщающей научной статьи являются: отсутствие сквозной нумерации у имеющегося математического аппарата, который обычно имеет иллюстративный характер; большой объем текс тового и сравнительно небольшой объем иллюстративно - графического материала; развитая библиография, включающая до 25 - 30 наименований, в том числе одну - две работы автора. Авторами обобщающих научных статей обычно являются работники среднего иерархического уровня (Senior 60 Engineer, Lead Engineer, Technical Coordinator, Group Leader, Company Officer, Technical Manager, Research Manager). Внешними признаками обзорной научной статьи являются: отсутствие раздела принятых обозначений, отсутствие математического а ппарата; большой объем текстового и сравнительно небольшой объем иллюстративно - графического материала, очень развитая библиография, включающая до 150 - 200 наименований. Авторами обзорных научных статей большей частью являются руководители среднего и высшего иерархических уровней (Chief Engineer, Chief Scientist, Project Manager, Program Manager, Technical Director, Research Director, Deputy Director, Associate Director, Director - General). Информационные службы большинства научных обществ и исследовательских организаций США (таких, как AIAA, IEEE, ACM, SAE, AGARD, NASA, и др.) с установленной периодичностью публикуют сборники аннотаций и реферативных обзоров научных статей и препринтов (как, например, International Aerospace Abstracts, издаваемые Technical In formation Service, AIAA), а также каталоги программно - матёматического обеспечения фундаментальных и прикладных научно - исследовательских работ (такие, как The Software Catalog/Science and Engineering, или более оперативное Menu/The International Software Da tabase, Издаваемые через специализированное издательство Usevier, New York, USA). Зарубежный пользователь, ознакомивши сь с аннотациями научных статей , публикуемых в такого рода переодических изданиях, заказывает и получает нужные ему статьи и программы ли бо в виде опера тивных распечаток на бумажных но сителях (в этом случае информация поступает по телефонной линии на знаковый или факсимильный печатающий аппарат пользователя), либо в виде записей на магнитных носителях устройства памяти персонального компьют ера, либо, пользуясь услугами традиционной почты, в виде записанных магнитных или лазерных дисков. 61 АНГЛО - РУССКИЙ ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ А access ‬ доступ, подход; - доступный adit ‬ штольня, галерея advance ‬ продвигать (ся), подвигать очистной забой; ‬ проходка, подвигание забоя, опережение, передовой забой advancing ‬ подвигание, наращивание, удлинение; ‬ прямой ход от ствола к границе advancing mining ‬ выемка прямым ходом, наступающая выемка (работа от с твола к границам шахтного поля) air duct ‬ ве нтиляционная труба, воздухопровод airway ‬ вентиляционная выработка, вытяжная выработка, выработка для исходящей вентиляционной струи, вентиляционный ходок; ‬ вентиляционный allotment ‬ горн ый отвод, шахтное поле, участок alluvial ‬ аллювиальный, наносный ambiguous ‬ двусмысленный, сомнительный; неопределенный, неясный; допускающий дв оякое толкование; неоднозначный auxiliary crosscut ‬ промежуточный квершлаг auxiliary shaft ‬ вспомогательный ствол В back ‬ висячий бок; кровля, задняя стенка; - поддерживать bank ‬ приемная площадка (нулевая верхняя), пачка пласта banking arrangement ‬ приемная площадка blast ‬ взрыв, взрывание шпура; взрывать blasting ‬ взрывание шпура (скважины), взрыв, взрывные работы; - взрывной blind shaft ‬ слепой ствол, гезенк block ca ving ‬ система разработки с массовым обрушением, блоковое обрушение, этажное обрушение borehole ‬ скважина, шпур boulder ‬ валун branch off ‬ отделяться; отходить от главного направления breadth ‬ ширина break ( broke , broken ) ‬ отбивать, ломать, обрушать ( кровлю); ‬ обрушение, посадка кровли, разлом, трещина breakdown ‬ поломка механизма, машины, авария breakthrough ‬ сбойка между камерами, просек, разрезная печь, выработка малого сечения breast ‬ грудь забоя, забой, площадь забоя, камера brine ‬ соляной ра створ, рассол (из буровой скважины) C cable ‬ кабель, канат; power cable ‬ силовой кабель cage ‬ клеть, платформа для вагонетки; ‬ загрузить клеть cage compartment ‬ клетьевое отделение cap ‬ капсюль - детонатор, переклад, порода кровли пласта, поперечная р аспорка станковой крепи cave ‬ обрушать, обрушаться, обрушать кровлю 62 caving ‬ выработанное пространство, обрушение cavity ‬ полость, впадина, трещина в породе chamber ‬ камера, печь, просек char ‬ древесный уголь; ‬ обу гливать, коксовать churn drill ‬ кана тное или ударное бурение chute ‬ спуск, желоб, скат, углеспускная выработка, спуск для руды circuit ‬ провод (тока), цикл, околоствольная выработка circular ventilation ‬ центральное проветривание clearance ‬ сечение в свету (выработки), габарит, расстояни е в свету, зазор cleat ‬ кливаж, слоистость combustion ‬ горение, сгорание companion drive ‬ парная выработка compressed air ‬ сжатый воздух compressed air drill ‬ пневматический перфоратор conflagration ‬ возгорание , пожар contamination ‬ загрязнение , пор ча , заражение contrivance ‬ план , изобретение , приспособление crew ‬ бригада , артель рабочих cross - cut ‬ квершлаг , орт , сбойка cross section clear ‬ поперечное сечение в свету cut ( cut ) ‬ рубить, подрубать, резать; ‬ вруб, разрез, заходка, высечка, выемка cut and fill ‬ разработка с закладкой cut off ‬ обрезать, прерывать; срез, отсечка, осечка (шнура) D development ‬ развитие, улучшение, внедрение, подготовительные работы; ‬ подготовительный development end ‬ забой подготовительной выработки development w orking ‬ подготовительная выработка digging ‬ разработка (открытая), рытье, земляные работы, копание dilute ‬ разбавлять, растворять, разубоживать (руду) dip ‬ падение, уклон, откос; ‬ падать disturbance ‬ нарушение, дислокация down - cast ‬ выработка, подаю щая воздух; ‬ нисходящий down - cast shaft ‬ ствол, подающий воздух в шахту dredge ‬ драга dressing ‬ обогащение, мойка, заправка, заточка drift ‬ штрек, выработка drifting ‬ проходка (выработок) drive (drove, driven) ‬ проходить, двигать, везти, приводить в движение; ‬ проходка, выработка, привод, передача, штрек drive a heading ‬ проходить выработку (штрек) E enduring ‬ противос тоящий выветриванию, устойчивый eruptive ‬ изверженный, вулканический, эруптивный excavation ‬ выемка, очистная выемка, горная выр аботка, экскавация, разрез, карьер exhaust ‬ отработанный, выхлопной; ‬ выхлоп; ‬ выкачивать, вытягивать 63 explore ‬ исследовать, разведывать exploration ‬ разведка, исследование (месторождения) exploratory shaft ‬ разведочный ствол explosive ‬ взрывчатый; ‬ взрывчатое вещество F face ‬ забой, лава, грудь забоя facilitate ‬ облегчать; содействовать; способствовать; помогать, продвигать fault ‬ сброс, сдвиг, разрыв, трещина, нарушение filled stope ‬ забой с закла дкой выработанного пространства filling ‬ навал ка, закладка, закладочный материал, погрузочный пункт (в шахте) fissure ‬ излом, трещина (в породе, угле); ‬ трескаться flank - бок, сторона flat back cut and fill ‬ потолкоуступная система разработки flat back ‬ метод разработки горизо нтальным потолкоуступным забоем , параллельным основному штреку flat back stope ‬ горизонтальный забой, потолкоуступный забой, параллельный основному штреку и продвигающийся по восстанию floor ‬ почва выработки, подошва пласта, горизонт, настил; ‬ настилать fold ‬ складка, сгиб; - изгибать, загнуть folding ‬ образование складок; ‬ складной, створчатый, откидной foot wal l ‬ подошва выработки, лежачий бок force ‬ сила, нагнетание; ‬ заставлять, принуждать, ускорять f ourfold ‬ четырёхкратный , четырежды; вчетверо free face ‬ обнаженная поверхность забоя, свободная плоскость забоя G gallery ‬ штрек, горизонтальная выработка, штольня gangway ‬ основной штрек, штрек, главный откаточный штрек, лестничное отделение gradient ‬ уклон, градиент gravity ‬ сила тяжести; by gravity самотеком, самоходом gravity incline ‬ бремсберг (наклонная выработка для спуска груза с помощью механического устройства) gravity plane ‬ бремсберг grinding ‬ измельчение, мелкое дробление, истирание ground ‬ земля, порода, подошва выработки grou p levels ‬ групповые выработки Н hammerpick ‬ отбойный молоток handling ‬ подача, перегрузка, доставк а, перемещение, транспортировка hanging wall ‬ висячий бок , кровля haul ‬ доставлять, откатывать, тянут ь, тащить; ‬ откатка, подъемник haulage ‬ откатка, канатная тяга, транспорт haulageway ‬ откаточный путь 64 head ‬ штрек, выработка по углю, гидростатический напор, напор воды, верх hoist ‬ подъем, подъемная машина, лебедка; ‬ поднимать, натянуть hoisting shaft ‬ главный шахтный ствол, подъемный ствол I incl ine ‬ уклон, бремсберг, наклонный ствол, скат, спуск, наклонная выработка (для подъема груза на вышележащий горизонт) inclined shaft ‬ наклонный ствол К kerf ‬ зарубка, выемка, вруб; ‬ зарубать, подрубать L lens ‬ линза; ‬ линзообразный, чечевицеобразный level ‬ горизонт, этаж, горизонтальная выработка; ‬ выравнивать; ‬ горизонтальный longwall ‬ выемка лавами, длинный сплошной забой loose ‬ очищать (забой), разрыхлять; а сыпучий, рыхлый loosening ‬ отбойка, разрыхление, ослабление М manway ‬ ходовое отде ление ствола, людской ходок, лестничное отделение mat ‬ на стил предварительной крепи, мат mining ‬ добыча, выемка, разработка, горное дело; ‬ рудный, горный mineral ‬ минерал, руда, полезное ископаемое; ‬ минеральный minor ‬ вторичный, вспомогательный mout h ‬ устье выработки, отверстие N necessitate ‬ вызывать необходимость . nomenclature ‬ но менклатура, перечень, список ; терминология О obliquely ‬ наклонно, наискось open cast ‬ открытые горные работы, карьер, разнос; ‬ открытый opening ‬ отверстие, вырабо тка, шурф, вскрытие opening up ‬ вскрытие (подготовка) opening up works ‬ вскрытие, горнокапитальные работы open cut ‬ открытые работы, карьер open pit ‬ разрез, карьер, открытая разработка open stope ‬ открытый забой ore dressing ‬ обогащение руд outcrop ‬ выходить на поверхность, обнажиться ‬ вытяжной ствол, запасный выход overbreaking ‬ подрывка кровли overburden ‬ вскрыша; наносы, перекрывающие породы overhand ‬ потол коуступный ‬ потолкоуступная выемка overlying rock ‬ налегающая горная порода, вышележащая порода 65 Р pack filling ‬ закладка пустой породой panel ‬ панель, прямоугольный целик или столб угля, выемочное поле parting ‬ разделение прослоек, трещиноватость pillar ‬ целик, столб, предохранительный целик pocket ‬ глухая выр аботка, карман, раскоска preparatory work ‬ подготовительные работы prospecting ‬ разве дка, поиски, разведочн ые работы Q quarry ‬ карьер, открытая выработка R raise ‬ восстающая выработка, бремсберг; ‬ поднимать, выдавать ‬ отступающая выемка (работа от границ шахтного поля к стволу), выемка обратным ходом rib ‬ предохранительный целик, прослоек rig ‬ каретка, буровой станок, комппектдля бурения; ‬ устанавливать rill ‬ диагональный забой rill stope ‬ разработка наклонными слоями с заклад кой, диаг ональная потолкоуступная выемка rob ‬ извлекать, вынимать или подрабатывать предохранительные целики ил и столбы; вести очистную работу roof ‬ кровля, потолок выработки; ‬ перекрывать room ‬ камера; ‬ камерный S safety pillar ‬ охранный целик saw ‬ пилить, распиливать seam ‬ слой, тонкая жила, пласт self - contained ‬ независимый, самостоятельный siding ‬ боковая выработка sink (sank, sunk) ‬ проходить (ствол), углублять, опускать, погружать, оседать shaft ‬ шахтный ствол shaft sinking ‬ углубка или п роходка ствола shear ‬ сдвиг, срез, сдвигающее или срезывающее усилие; ‬ сделать вертикальный вруб, зарубить (по вертикали), сдвинуть shovel ‬ лопатка, механическая лопатка, экскаватор, погрузочная машина; ‬ рыть, копать, перелопачивать shrinkage stope ‬ выемка с магазинированием shunt ‬ отводить, ответвлять, переходить на запасный путь, маневрировать skipway ‬ скиповое отделение slice drift ‬ слоевая выемка slough ‬ отваливаться, обрушаться sludge ‬ буровая грязь, муть, шлам spontaneous combustion ‬ самов оспламенение, самовозгорание staple shaft ‬ слепой ствол stem - тело бура, штанга; ‬ забить шпур step ‬ уступ, ступень stope ‬ очищать, вынимать; ‬ очистной забой stepped face ‬ уступный забой stoping ‬ очистная выемка, очистные работы 66 stopping ‬ перегород ка, перемычка, изоляционная перемычка, глухая перемычка, остановка storage bin ‬ бункер stowing ‬ закладка; а закладочный ‬ растяжка, распорка, приспособление для растягивания; ‬ по перечный перекладб лежанб опора subdeposit level ‬ выработка в по дстилающих породах sublevel ‬ подэтаж, промежуточный этаж, подэтажный штрек, промежуточный штрек sublevel mining ‬ разработка под этажами submerge ‬ погружаться subside ‬ опускаться, падать, понижаться, убывать ; опускаться, оседать subsidence ‬ осаждение, оседание, осадка subsidiary ‬ вспомогательный sump ‬ зумф, водосборник superfluous ‬ излишний, ненужный, избыточный, чрезмерный support ‬ крепить, поддерживать, подпирать; n опора, стойка, поддержание, крепь Т tabular ‬ пластовый (о месторождении), плоски й, табличный tailing(s) ‬ хвосты обогатительной фабрики, остаток после обогащения tenor ‬ содержание test pit ‬ пробный шурф, разведо чная скважина, опорная скважина thickness ‬ мощность, толщина timber ‬ крепь, крепежный лес, лесоматериал; ‬ крепить, закре плять top slicing ‬ слоевое обрушение transfer station ‬ перегрузочная станция transverse ‬ поперечный, косой trap - door ‬ дверь для регулирования воздуха в шахте trenching ‬ разведка канавами, проведение канав, опробирование кан авами, бороздовое опробирова ние tubular ‬ трубчатый, цилиндрический U undercut ‬ подрубать, производить нижний вруб; ‬ подрубка undercutting ‬ зарубка, подрубка, производство вруба undercutting machine ‬ машина для нижней зарубки, врубовая машина underhand stoping ‬ почвоуступная вы емка, подвигание вниз по падению underlie (underlay, underlain) ‬ подстилать, залегать ниже; ‬ нижележащий undermine ‬ подрубать, делать нижний вруб, подрабатывать upcast ‬ выработка для исходящей струи, вентиляционная выработка; ‬ восходящий, вентиляционн ый upcast shaft ‬ вентиляционный ствол V vein ‬ жи ла, пласт, пропласток, прожилок W wall in ‬ крепить waste ‬ пустая порода, выработанное пространство, угольная мелочь, бутовый штрек 67 water bearing ‬ насыщенный водой weathering ‬ выветривание wedging ‬ ра склинка, клиновая отбойка, забивная клиновая крепь win (won) ‬ добывать, разрабатывать winze ‬ скат, гезенк, спуск working ‬ выработка, работа, разработка; ‬ работающий, действующий Y yield ‬ подаваться, сдавать, добывать; производить; ‬ податливость, добы ча, оседание кровли; ‬ податливый СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ Англо - русский геологический словарь / под ред. Д. С. Коржинского . ‬ М.: Гос. изд - во тех. - теоретич. лит - ры, 1957 . Англо - русский горнотехнический словарь / под ред. Б. М. Вор обьева . ‬ М.: Углетехиздат, 1958 . Панин И . М . Основы горного дела / И. М. Панин [ и др. ]. ‬ М: Изд - во литературы на ин.яз., 1958. ‬ 120 с. Mining Magazine . URL: http://www.miningmagazine.com . 68 ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ UNIT I: WHAT IS MINING? TEXT 1: MINING - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - TEXT 2: IMPORTANT TERMS USED IN MINING - - - - - - - - - - - - - TEXT 3: THE IMPORTANCE OF GEOLOGY FOR MINING - - - - - - TEXT 4: THE IMPORTANCE OF GEOLOGY FOR MINING (Continued) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - UNIT II: PROSPECTING AND EXPLORATION : TEXT 1: PROSPECTING, EXPLORATION AND SAMPLING - - - - - - UNIT III: OPENING UP OF THE DEPOSIT, ITS D EVELOPMENT AND PREPARATION FOR MINING : TEXT 1: DIVIDING THE DEPOSIT INTO SECTION S AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - TEXT 2 : CLASSIFICATION OF MINING OPERATIONS - - - - - - - - - TEXT 3: PRINC IPLES IN MAKING OPENING UP AND PREPARATORY WORKINGS (DEVELOPMENT WORKINGS) - - - - TEXT 4: OPENING UP WORKS : 1) Vertical Shafts - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2) Incline Shafts in the Deposit - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3) Incline Shafts Sunk Outside the Deposit - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4) Crosscuts - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5) Auxiliary Crosscuts - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6) Adits (Tunnels) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7) S haft stations and circuits - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - UNIT IV: DEVELOPMENT WORK : TEXT 1: Main Haulageways: Group Levels, Subdeposit Levels - - - - - - TEXT 2: Drives - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - TEXT 3: Twin Drives: Companion Drives - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - TEXT 4: Overbreaking and Underbreaking - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - TEXT 5: Transverse Galleries (Breakthroughs) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - TEXT 7: Suble vel Drives - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - TEXT 8: Gravity Inclines and Winzes - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - TEXT 9: Raises and Chutes - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - TEXT 10: Breakthroughs, or Holings - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - UNIT IV: EXCAVATION : TEXT 1: EXCAVATION - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - TEXT 2: FUNDAMENTAL RULES IN CHOOSING THE MINING METHODS (General Remarks) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 4 5 6 8 10 13 16 19 20 21 21 22 23 25 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 30 30 31 31 33 68 TEXT 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - TEXT 4 ntinued) - - - - - - - TEXT 5 - - - - - - - ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ДОМАШНЕГО ЧТЕНИЯ - - - - - - - - - - - - - АННОТАЦИЯ НАУЧНОЙ СТАТЬИ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - АНГЛО - РУССКИЙ ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ - - - - - - - 35 37 39 42 58 61 67 68 Учебное издание Светлана Анатольевна Безбородова ГОРНОЕ ДЕЛО Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов II курса горно - технологического факультета Корректура каф едры иностранных языков и деловой коммуникации Подписано в печать Бумага писчая. Формат бумаги 60х84 1/16. Гарнитура Times New Roman . Печать на ризографе. Печ. л. 3,6. Уч. - изд. л. 3,22. Тираж экз. Заказ № Издательство УГГУ 620144, г. Екат еринбург, ул. Куйбышева, 30 Уральский государственный горный университет Отпечатано с оригинал - макета в лаборатории множительной техники УГГУ

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