Горное дело, учебное пособие для ГТФ


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Министерство образования и науки

РФ

Ф
Г
Б
ОУ ВПО


Уральский государственный

горный университет














С. А. Безбородова



ГОРНОЕ ДЕЛО




Учебное пособие

по английскому языку

для
студентов
II

курса

горно
-
технологического факультета












Екате
ринбург

2011



1

Министерство образования и науки РФ

Ф
Г
Б
ОУ ВПО

©Уральский государственный горный университетª


ОДОБРЕНО

Методической комиссией

факультета геологии и

геофизики УГГУ

©______ª ______________2011

г.

Председатель комиссии

________проф. С. Н. Таг
ильцев







С.
А. Безбородова



ГОРНОЕ ДЕЛО




Учебное пособие

по английскому языку

для студентов
II

курса

г
орно
-
технологического факультета












Издание УГГУ







Екатеринбург, 2011


2

Б
39






Рецензент:
Н. П
.
Сарафанова
,
ст. преп.
каф.
ИЯДК

Ура
льского
государственного горного университета


Учебное пособие рассмотрено на заседании кафедры иностранных языков и
деловой коммуникации
4

октября 2011

г.

(протокол №
2
) и рекомендовано для
издания в УГГУ.





Безбородова С. А.

Б
39 ГОРНОЕ ДЕЛО
: учебно
е пособие по английскому языку для студентов
II

курса


г
орно
-
технологического факультета

/ С. А. Безбородова
.



Екатеринбург:
Изд
-


во


УГГУ, 20
11
.


6
8

с.





Учебное пособие

предназначен
о

для студентов II курса
горно
-
технологического

факультета
.


Пособие

состоит из
четырех
разделов, в которых рассматриваются вопросы
основ горного дела
.

Каждый раздел посвящен определенной теме и
содержит текст, лексико
-
грамматический комментарий и упражнения к тексту.


Учебное пособие

также содержит
ра
здел, посвященный написанию
аннотаций научных статей и
англо
-
русский
терминологический словарь.

Цель данной разработки


подготовить студентов к самостоятельному
чтению и аннотированию
оригинальной технической
литературы по
специальности.










©
Безбор
одова
С. А.,
2011


© Уральский
государс
твенный


горный университет, 2011


3

UNIT I: WHAT IS MINING
?


TEXT 1:
MINING



Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов
обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия:


Mining is a branch of industry

occupied wit
h the search for exploitation,
and
dressing of economic minerals and rocks.

Many minerals and rocks are today basic raw materials or important
auxiliary substances for various branches of industry: coal and oil are the most
important sources o
building material for machines, bridges and other constructions; other minerals
yield the raw materials for the chemical industry; others are used in building; salt is
a foodstuff, etc.

The miner has
two main tasks: to break out, and to transport to the surface
the economic mineral. Everything else which the miner does is only a necessary
evil
1
, work which is done in order to make these two fundamental activities
possible. We pump the water from the mi
ne, as otherwise there would be no
access

to it and work in it would be impossible
2
. For the same reason we ventilate the
mine. The support of the mining rooms is also a necessary evil, and the same
akes possible the
fulfilment of the two basic tasks.

support
therefore save on them as much as possible and
restrict them to the
necessary
minimum and carry them out only in
if

they facilitate the fulfilment of our main
tasks.


COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT
:

1
.
a necessary evil



неизбежная

ра
бота

2
. there would be no access to it and wo
rk in it would be impossible


не

было

бы

доступа

к

ней

и

работа

в

ней

была

бы

невозможна


W
ORDS TO MEMORIZ
E
:

Nouns: mining, rock, safety, source, raw materials

Verbs: yield, break out, support, app
ly, search,
co
nstitute, carry out, dress,
facilitate

Adjectives: various, auxiliary, main, important, necessary


EXERCISES:

I
. Read and translate the following words and derivatives:

a) a form, formal, formation, to form, formed,
to
transform, transformati
on,
to
reform, reformation, to inform, fo
rmality, information, formalism


4

b) a mine, to mine, mined, mining, a miner, a mining engineer, mining
o
ds, the Mining University

c) transport, to transport, transportat
ion, transportable, transported

d) to vary,

various, variable, varian
t, variation, variety

e)

a chemist, chemistry, chemical


II
. Answer the following questions:

1. What is mining?

2. What is the most important sources of heat and energy?


4. What main tasks has a miner?

5.

Why is it necessary to pump water from the mine?

6. What auxiliary operations in mining do you know?


TEXT 2:
IMPORTANT TERMS USED IN MINING


Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов
обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия:


All mine openings, which are
parallel or nearly parallel to

the strike of the
deposit and lying in or near the ore

body are called
drifts

(or
galleries
, or
r
oadways in coal mining). They are hor
izontal or nearly horizontal. They fo
llow
a
contour

line of the deposit.

The horizon at which an ore body is ope
n
ed up and fro
m

whi
c
h mining
proceeds is called a level. The term is often used in the same sense as drift,

or to
cover
all horizontal wor
kings

on
one horizon.

All underground open
ings which follow the dip are ca
lled
inc
lined shafts

or
inclines
. Their inclination

is as a

rule identical with that of the deposit.

All openings which a
re horizontal, but perpendicul
ar to the strike of the beds
are called
crosscuts

Vertical openings which cross horizontal or inc
lined beds and are parallel to

vertical beds are called
winzes

or
raises
.

Openings cut upwards from be
l
ow are called raises, and when

sunk
1

downwards from

above they are called winzes. I
n coal m
ining vertical interior
openings

are called
staple shafts
.

The rocks immediately overlying a level, drift or any other working or seam
are

called the
hanging wall

(
roof)
, the walls are called side walls, and th
e rocks
immediately below are ca
lled the
footwall

(floor). The beginning of a drift is its
mouth
, and its end is the
face
. The terminology of mining differs greatly in coal


COMMENTARY

TO THE TEXT
:

1) when sunk


when they are sunk


когда

их

проходя
т



5

WORDS TO MEMORIZ
E:

Nouns:

openin
g, strike, dip, ore

body, drift,

level, bed, crosscut,
winze, raise,
sh
aft, roof, foot,

floor, mouth, face

Verbs:

cu
t, cr
follow


EXERCISES
:

I. Group in pairs
:

a) s
ynonyms
;

b) anto
nyms
;

bed


to name


near


down

to call


seam



up


to open

working

to begin


b
elow


shallow

stratum

opening


upwar
ds

above

to start

layer



t
o close

downwards

nearly


almost


deep


far


II
. Answer the following questions:

1.
What openings do we call drifts
?

2. What is a level
?

3. Wh
at workings do we call inclines
?

4. Wha
t openings do we call crosscuts
?

5. What impor
tant terms in mining d
o we know
?


TEXT 3:
THE IMPORTANCE OF GEOLOGY FOR MINING


Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов
обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия:



The useful and important
minerals and rocks are, like all other minerals and
rocks, parts of the material that goes to build up the earth‱s crust; therefore

geology
as the science dealing with the study

of this crust has a special importance for the
miner.


When it was established that coal was
formed by the accumulation of p
lants
and their transformation, carbonization, it becomes obvious that it was useles
s to
sear
ch for it in an area built of gr
anite and form
ed by the solidification of mol
ten
magma, and coal could not be formed in a rock of this kind. Generally speaking we
shall not look for minerals formed with the cooperation of organisms (oil,
limestone
, etc.) in igneous rocks as organisms cannot live in molten lava and
magma.


Organic life was first restricted to water, more accurately speaking to sea
water. It took a long time before terrestrial and fresh
-
water vegetation reached any
great development
and distribution. It has been definitely establis
hed that only in
the Carboniferous and Permian periods they

appeared, or rather were formed by
evolution, on the earth those species of plants which
form our principal coal
deposit
s, and they were widespread

only at that time. Thus it would be u
seless to
look for coal deposit
s in strata formed before that time.


6


The deposit
s of mineral formed by the transformation and replacement of
limestone can be looked for o
nly in limestone. Other deposit
s were formed by
the
concentration of certain substances from the granitic magma and thus
are
found in
granitic areas only, or in their immediate neighbourhood.


WORDS TO MEMORIZ
E:

Nouns: earth, crust, coal
, area, speci
es, deposit, stratum, substance

Verbs: deal, establish
, form, de
velop, distribute, appear, mine

Adjectives: obvious, igneous, accurate,

immediate, definite, principal

Adverbs and expressions: therefore, thus, generall
y speaking, accurately
speaking


EXERCISES:

I. Find the synonyms:

1. to look for


sediment

2.

certain



accumulation

3. area



kinds

4. concentration


definite

5. species



region

6. deposit



to search for


I
I. Find the antonyms:

1. near


less

2. more


unfavo
u
rable

3. useful


un
important

4.
important


far

5. favourable

useless

6. slow


quick


II
I
. Answer the following questions
:

1. Does geology deal with the study of the earth's crust?

2.

Why has geology a s
pecial importance for the miner
?

3. How was coal formed
?

4. Can we look for c
oal in an area built of granite
?

5. Where can we look for c
oal
?


TEXT 4:
THE IMPORTANCE OF GEOLOGY FOR MINING

(Continued)



Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов
обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия:


Some kinds of ores a
re deposited by water; we look for such ores only in
rocks formed by sedimentation from water. When we have determined that a
certain ore

was formed by sedimentation from sea water
-

and this
с
an easily be
-

then we shall look

7

for it only in sediments formed by marine sedimentation. An ore of this kind will
occupy a cer
tain posit
ion in these sedimentary rocks

and will have the same shape
as the

other marine sediments, i.e.

it will form a

thicker or thinner, more or less
extensive layer.

Thus not only the position but also the shape of the deposit is
n.

When we have ascertained that a certain deposit was forme
d by a fissure
1

in
the earth's crust being filled with useful minerals, e.g.
with galen
a
,

we shall look
for this deposit only where there were favo
u
rable conditions for the formation and
filling o
f fissures. The shape of the deposit will be that of a fissure, i.e. the deposit
will form a vein.

geology and mining; how close this connection is will be still more evident after
we h
ave described the significance of the shape and

position of a deposit, as they

are the result of the processes by which the deposit of the useful mineral was
prospecting and
ending with exploitation.


Geology is also important for

the
miner because
all mining work is carried
are carried out
2

in soft or resistant, coherent or crumbling rocks, in r
ocks
containing water or in dry rocks, in rocks found near the surface or far below it. A
deposit forming a horizontal bed will
have to be explored, opened up a
nd mined
differently from a deposit in the shape of a vertical layer or vein.


COMMENTARY TO THE

TEXT
:

1
)
by

a

fissure

in the earth's crust

being

filled



путём

заполнения

трещины

в

земной

коре

2
)
w
ing operations are carried out


проводятся

ли

горные

работы


WORDS TO MEMORIZ
E:

Nouns:

layer, origin

Verbs:

deposit, contain, exist, proces
s

Adjectives:

sedimentary, extensive, evident, favora
u
ble


EXERCISES:

I. Give synonyms
to

the following words
:
kinds, area, deposit,
accumulation, look for, certain


II
. Give antony
m
s
to

the following words
:
useful, less, favo
u
rable, quick,
far, unimportan
t


III
. Give the degrees of comparison of the following adjectives
:
thick, thin,
much, little, soft, resistant, dry



8

I
V Answer the following questions
:

1. What is determined by the mode of origin?

2. What is the shape of the deposit formed by filling a fi
ssure?

3. Do shape and position of a deposit determine all mining work?

4. Is all mining work carried out in the earth's crust?

5. What do the mining operations depend upon?



UNIT II: PROSPECTING

AND

EXPLORATION


TEXT 1:
PROSPECTING
,

EXPLORATION AND SAMP
LING


Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов
обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия:


Geological prospecting is the first step in fin
ding the ore. It is initiated with

a
study of geological maps and reports, if such exist. Work is directed to
regions
where the geological conditions are favo
u
rable for mineralization. In search for
primary deposits, intrusive igneous bodies should b
e sought, as they may be a
sourc
e of mineralizing solutions. F
е
atures that show the presence of
min
e
ralization, such

as fissures, faults, shear zones
or folds
, should then be looked
for and followed. If limesto
nes are intruded by or lie near

intrusives or are cut by
fissures, they should receive careful attention. If deposits are known in the area, the
mineral habit of
the region can then be utilized. Oxidized areas are sought to see if
there are any croppings
1

that can tell a story of the character and abundance of pre
-
existing sulfides.

prospecting. The chi
c

In con
n
reasons: for location of minerals covered

with

soil, rock or water; to search for
extensions on strike or dip of known ore

bodies; to search for parallel orebodies:
for lo
cation of faults and water
-
beari

bodies for estimating tonnages and values. Boring f
rom the surface is best suited
for

large deposits of fairly uniform grade

such as masses or beds dipping

less than
50
0
o
d of exploration, and may not furnish
all the desired information. In such cases
trenching
,
test
pitting
,
shaft sin
k
ing

or
drifting

is used.

Trenches are

confined to shallow soil; the e
conomic l
imit of depth is about
6
-
7 ft; t
est pits are used for alluvium too deep for trenches. They ar
е

applicable for
depths to 100 ft,

-
bearing ground te
st
pits may be less suitable tha
o
ds.

Ac
c
uracy

of sampling depends largely upon the
c
haracter of the material
drilled. Diamond drills give accurat
e samples in h
a
rd rock where core recovery is
churn drills

in fine
-
grained

9

unconsolidatied m
aterial whe
re casing can be driven ahead

by
the drill bit or sand
pump.Soft, broken formations which cave in the hol
e are most difficult to sample.
Cores are more
sa
tisfactory than
char
-
drill sludge

for

determining geological


COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT
:

1
.
ox
idised

areas

are

sought

to

see

if

there

are

any

croppings



окислен
ны
е

зоны

отыскивают

для

того
,

чтобы

убедиться

есть

ли

обнажения


WOR
DS TO MEMORIZ
E:

Nouns:

exploration, cropping, ore

body, location, trench, pit, accu
racy

Verbs:

intrude, estimate, drill, prospect, sample

Adjectives:

primary, uniform, water
-
bearing
, average


EXERCISE
S
:

I
.

Form adjectives with the given suffixes
:

-
ic
-


-
ent
-

presence; to differ; sufficiency, absence
;

-
ant
-

importance, a
bundance, distance
;

-
ary
-

prime, second, sediment
;

-
ive


to effec
t, to act;

-
al
-

industry, nature, to

locate, phys
ics
.


II. Add prefixes to the following words and t
ranslate

them:

dis
-

to cover, to organize, location
;

un
-

favo
u
rable, satisfactory, suitable, desired, like
;

in
-

;

im
-

possible, practicable, movable
.


I
II
. Group in

pairs synonymous words
:

an area


extension

to seek

for


to furnish

a bed



a region

to give


to limit

reserves


tonnages

to confine


to search for

elongation


a stratum


I
V. Find

antonyms in the text to the following words:

shallow,
consol
idated, no
n
.


V
. Translate into Russian:
basic raw material, important auxiliary
substances, for mining industry, for other branches of industry, work

which is
done: a hole is being drilled; the sh
aft has been sunk; the support of the mining
rooms; the t
wo basic

tasks.


10

V
I. Answer the following questions:

1. What is th
e
fi
rst step is finding the ore
?

2. To what regions is the attention of the miners directed first?

of expl
oration
do you know
?

4. What is
b
oring used for?

5. Is boring a cheap or
?

oration
?

7.

What drills gi
ve us the most accurate samples
?

8.

In what roc
ks does

churn dr
illing present accurate samples
?



UNIT III
: OPENING UP OF THE DEPOSIT
, ITS DEVELOPMENT AND
PREPARATION FOR MINING


TEXT 1:
DIVIDING

THE DEPOSIT INTO

SECTION
S

AND
THEIR

SIGNIFICANCE


Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов
обра
титесь к словарю в конце пособия:


a. Mining, i.e. the loosening, breaking and winning of a mineral is of course,
not carried out without previous planning. We do not mine immediately at the
places where we have exp
l
o
r
ed the mineral, and wh
ere we know the
mineral to be¹.

All work is carried out in a certain order. This is necessary as only a limited
number of miners can work in one place, and this limited number can break only a
cer
tain quantity of the mineral. If

we want a larger output, we have to provide

for
several such groups to work simultaneously and without interfering wi
th each other
in the workings².

Through any particular
haulage

road we can transport a certain quantity of
mined mineral, a certain quantity of the necessary mining timber and of oth
er
materials, and convey a certain quantity of air. A larger output therefore demands
more road
s, and they

have to be driven³

according to an accurate plan.

Neither the shape of the excavations nor their size can be arbitra
ry,
otherwise they would cave
4
,

t
he roofs would collapse and further work would be
impossible. The place where mining is going on has also to be easily accessible.
Further, we have to provide for the safety o
f the miners, the

adequate ventilation,
the drain
ing of water, and especially

the

transport of the mineral.

On terminating exploration
5

therefore the deposit has to be extensively
opened up, i.e. made accessible and at the same time divided into suitable sections,
which can then be mined gradually, and acc
ording to a plan, one after an
other. The
main object of this division is to make eac
h section a
self
-
contained unit
:

1.
which will be mined separ
a
t
ely,

2.
from which there will be separate transport (haulage),

3.
which will be manned
6

by a certain of miners,

4.
from which the mineral m
ined can easily be removed,


11

5.
which must be readily accessible,

6.
which will be separately ventilated,

7.
into which all necessary material, such as timber, building material, tools,
machines, etc., can easily be transported,

8.
into which the necessary
filling material can easily be brought if the
excavations are to be filled.

output. The larger the output the
greater the number of sections
which must be
opened up
and prepare
d for mining. Work in

one section must not interfere with
work in another section.

development. Here several f
undamental rules
are applied
, which are not almost
generally observed.

1. FIRST

RULE: We divide the deposit into separate sections in a vertical
direction, the levels or horizons, by making
crosscuts
from the
shaft

and
horizontal

drives

from

the crosscuts
in the deposit, and mine one section after
an
other
, usually from above downwards
7
. This is natural. The sinking of shafts is
very expensive and therefore we mine first the portions situated at a shallow depth,
and proceed deeper gradually, when the exploit
ation already carried out
it
facilitates further deepening. Moreover, mining and the pumping of water are more
difficult and expensive at greater depths. Of course we usually do not begin at the
surface, but leave here a
protecting
pillar
, which prevents t
he surface waters from

of

low grade at the surface
because of weathering.

2. SECOND RULE: The deposit is divided by horizontal drives into separate
sections (in tabular deposits into horizontal panels), w
hich, of course, lie one below
an
other. In these panels we mine along

the strike, or across it, or down

the dip, but
mining as a whole alw
ays proceeds horizontally.

3. THIRD RULE: The mineral mined in the different panels is always
transported downward as
far as the lower level which delimits the panel in depth.
With a greater dip of the deposit and with a mineral allowing rough ha
n
dling we
and the
crosscut to the shaft.

In the pane
l section proper the broken ore is not carried upwards, for it is
only rarely
that upward transport is easy
8
.

But we must transport upwards when a
section of the deposit does not reach the lower level because of faults and folding.
If it is at the limit of

the mining field, or if making a drive affording
access to this
part from below
9

would be more expensive than the suble
vel mining of the
s
mall
area.

4. FOURTH RULE: In the different sections we mine horizontally from the
boundary to the shaft (
)
direction, from the shaft, i.e.
advancing
. We start win
n
ing at the boundaries of the
field, firstly in order that the shaft with all i
ts surface equipment might

remain as
long as possible in the undisturbed f
ield, and therefore not affected by


12

undermining; secondly, so

that the main haulage drives leading to the stopes may
be in undisturbed ground. When we mine from the boundaries to the shaft (when
-
out sections are no long
er requi
red, and are
allowed to cave
10
.

It we mine in the opposite direction
,

advancing, transport from
the stopes would be through those parts of the mine which h
ad alr
eady been
worked out, and the system of drives would have to be
maintained in disturbed

roc
k.

With very distant boundaries, however, it would take t
oo long to mine
11
.

During the time of driving we should only mine what would
be
taken out of the drives
12
.

Therefore in such cases we set up several working places
near the sha
ft, ou

5. FIFTH RULE: When the beds are steeply inclined, the miners enter the
workings from above, i.e. by the upper level, and are lowered to the working place.
They leave

by the lower level. When the beds are fl
at, the miners enter thr
ough the
lower level and through the inclines, as this is the easiest connection with the

6. SIXTH RULE: The necessary timber and other materials, tools and
machinery are transported into the mi
ne through the upper level and lowered to the
working place. If, however, the lower level is well equip
ped,
it

is used
for

preference
13
.

7. SEVENTH RULE: Similarly, the
filling
material is transported to the
working place through the upp
er level and then d
own to the si
te
.

8
. EIGH
TH RULE: The air curr
ent, on the other hand, is led

in through the
lower level,
rises

through the working place, and is extracte
d through the upper
level.


COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT
:

1) where we know the mineral to be


в том месте, гд
е по нашим
сведениям, нахо
дится полезное ископаемое

2) without interfering with each other in the workings


не

мешая

одна

другой

/
друг

другу
/
в

выработках

3) they

have to be driven


и

их

нужно

проходить

4) otherwise they would cave


иначе они бы обрушил
ись

5) on terminating exploration


по

окончанию

разведки

6) to man


укомплектовывать

7) from above downwards


сверху

вниз

8) for it is only rarely that upward transport is easy


так

как

очень

редко

бывает

легко

транспортировать

вверх

9) if making a dri
ve affording access to this part from below


если

проходят

выработку

дающую

доступ

к

этой

части

снизу

10)
the

drives

are no longer requi
red

and

are

allowed

to

cave



штреки

не

требуются

и

их

можно

обрушит
ь

11)
it

would

take

too

long

to

mine

retreatingly



потребовалось

бы

очень

долго

разрабатывать

обратным

ходом


13

12)
we

should

only

mine

what

would

be

taken

out

of

the

drives



мы

должны

добывать

только

то
,
что

могло

бы

быть

извлечено

из

штреков

13)
it is used for
preference


предпочитают

пользоваться

им


WO
RDS TO MEMORIZ
E:

Nouns:

dividing
, output, un
it, drive, significance
,
pillar, weathering,
prepara
tory work, crosscut,
site, ma
chinery, r
ule, boundary, stope

Verbs:

loosen, win,
expose, interfere
,

protect, prevent, han
dle, haul, yield,
equi
p, advance, mainta
in, incline

Adjectives:

certain, several, p
articular, accessible, easy
,

sh
allow, expensiv
e,
cheap, similar, steep, upper

Expressions:

in order to
, as far as, besides
,

for, as a whole


E
XERCISES:

Ι
. Answer the following questions
:

1.
How is
mining carried out?

2.
What can we transport throu
gh any particular haulage road?

3.
What must the shape and size

of the excavation provide for?

4.
For what purpose do we divide

the deposit into sections?

5.
How

de we divide the deposit?

6.
D
o we mine along the strike or down

the dip in horizontal panels?

7.
How do we transport the mineral in the different panels?

8.
When do we transport the broken ore upwards?

9.
What mining is called “advancing”?

10.
What
mining is called “retreating”?

11.
How do the miners enter the workings when the beds are steeply
inclined?

12.
How do the miners transport materials, tools, machinery into the mine?



TEXT
2
:
CLASSIFICATION OF MINING OPERATIONS


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обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия:


a) The mining operations can be divided as follows:

1. Opening up works uncover or, as the miners say, “open up” the deposits
and provide access to it
. They

may be said to include
1
:

a) the main and other important levels and crosscuts;

b) vertical shafts;

c) incline shafts made outside the deposit with the crosscuts pertaining to
them.

2. Exploratory Works. By the working listed in we only uncover, strike,
and
cross the deposit, often only at one point or at a few points. Therefore our next task
is to determine the size of the deposit, and also its characte
r along the strike as well

14

as down

the dip. This is done by making drives and inclines. These openings
follow the deposit both in strike and dip. They primarily serve only for exploration,
but are designed in such a way as t
o make it possible to use them
2

for mining
proper should the exploration turn out
favourably
3
.

3. Development work proper: the developm
ent drive can be called a further
stage of opening up; they make a deposit accessible in strike and dip, i.e. over the
whole area, if it is stratified as in the case of coal seams and regular veins. Deposits
of the shape of irregular lenses and stock
-
works

are opened up to a large extent by
means of vertical and inclined shafts and
subsidiary shafts
, as well as by auxiliary
crosscuts and
transverse galleries
. This further stage of opening up, which is done

used for mining and are
constructed

with special regard to mining
4
, is called development, and the work
connected with it is called development work. Its purpose is to make the deposit
accessible both in strike and dip.

It includes:

a)
inclines in the d
eposit;

b)
various secondary crosscuts, especially in the
sublevels
;

c)
main drives;

d)
some sublevel drives;

e)
subsidiary shafts in the deposit,
staple shafts

This would give the sequence
of
opening up, exploring and development.

4) Preparatory

Works. After having explored the deposit and made it
accessible both in stri
ke and dip, or developed

it
5
,

we proceed to carry out work
designed to m
ake possible, and to facilitate

mining proper. Therefore, we call this
preparatory work. It is executed alm
ost entirely within the deposit and includes:

a) inclines and
transfer
-
stations

with
manways
;

b) sublevel drives between the levels;

c) various crosscuts,
chutes
,
minor

shafts
, raises, winzes and othe
r works,
though this last group

may serve the most vari
ed purposes.

In this classificati
on changes may have to be made
6

according to local
conditions and customs. In particular the main levels may be inclined in the
development work or in the preparatory work. Not only the technical conditions,
especially the
shape of the deposit, are important in this respect, but also the
economic and administrative aspects.

From a purely technical point of view a divisio
n into two groups, i.e.
opening
up and preparatory works, would be roughly sufficient for us, for every
wo
rk is to a certain extent one of opening up and at the same time also one of
preparation for mining. Almost every activity serves simultaneously several
purposes. The sinking of the shaft is a preparation for mining, i.e. the first stage of
this preparatio
n. The driving of crosscuts is the secon
d stage, the driving of levels
-

a

further stage, and the making of
break
-
throughs

we go still further and put in gravity inclines and sublevel drives.

Each of these works opens up a
nd makes the deposit accessible: a crosscut
-

at one point only, a level
-

along the strike, a break
-
through
-

in the direction of the
di
p. From a technical point of vie
w it is a matter of personal judg
e
ment as to where

15

we what to draw the line and whether

we speak of opening
-
up wo
rks or of
preparatory works
7
.

The opening
up, exploration, development, and preparatory work for mining
conforms
first of all to the shape and position of the deposit, then to the nature of
the overburden and the ch
hod. The opening
up and preparatory
work will be different for mining a
lens
-
shaped

deposit, a thick horizontal seam,
or a faulted and folded seam. Therefore the
nomenclature

of th
e

workings and
their division into the different groups differ from case to
case.


COMMENTARY TO THE
TEXT
:

1) The
y

may be said to include


можно

сказать
,
что

они

включают

2) in such a way as to make it possible to use them


таким

образом
,

чтобы

можно

было

их

использовать

3) should the exploration turn out favourably


в

том

случ
ае

если

4) are constructed with special regard to mining


строятся

специально

для

добычи

5) after having explored the deposit…

or developed

it


после разведки
месторождения или после того, как
проведены подготовительные работы

6) may have to be made


во
зможно

нужно

сделать

7) it is a matter of personal judg
e
ment as to where we what to draw the line
and whether we speak of
opening

up works or of preparatory works


персонал

решает
,

где

провести

границу

между

вскрышными

работами

и

подготовительными


WORDS

TO MEMORIZ
E:

Nouns:
access, stage, chute, break
-
throug
h, overburden
,
condition, incline,
point, gravity incline, vein

Verbs:
e, serve, design, vary, follow
,
expend, prefer,
distribute

Adjectives:

proper, regular,
local, especial, sufficie
nt

Expressions:

a few, to a large extent,
by means of, as to, either…or


E
XERCISE
S
:

I
.
Answer the following questions:

1.

How can the mining operations be divided?

2. What do the opening up works include?

3. What do we call “exploratory works”?

4. What
is the task of the exploratory works?

5. What are development workings?

6. What is the purpose of development work?

7.
What are preparatory workings?

8.
What are the stages of preparatory works?

9.
What
work
ing

open up and make the deposit accessible?


10.
What does every mining work conform to?



16

TEXT 3:
PRINCIPLES IN MAKING
OPENING

UP AND

PREPARATORY

WORKI
N
GS (DEVELOPMENT
WORKINGS)


Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов
обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия:


a)

The purpose of the
opening
-
up, exploratory, development
, and
preparatory workings

is to make a mineral deposit accessible and to facilitate its
extra
ction
. The deposit to be mined
1

simultaneously in several places must be
divided into suitable sections.

From what has been said it is evident that the opening
-
up and preparatory
works precede mining proper. To execute them usually takes a fairly long time. We
need to know this period of time in order to prepare a sufficient length of
longwall

or as many
working faces

as are required to give the desired output.

Every working is used only for a specific time. Therefore it is made to last
only for that time and n
o longer. There are workings which are needed only for a
very short time, a few months or weeks. Such workings must be equipped
differently from those which will stand for many years. We have to bear this in
mind when we decide upon the support of a workin
g.

The amount of production from a given locality also is important from the
point of view of
support
. In galleries through which a great part of the output
passes
,

repairs and other interruptions of work would be most annoying, and
therefore the support
of these places is made more
enduring
.

Th
e dimensions of the
haulageways

are determined: partly by their
importance, i.e. by the amount of broken mineral passing through them, w
single or double
-
railed
2
, partly by the quantity of air which has to be

led through
them, by the dimensions of the pipelines, cables and other installations running
off.

In mines with fire
-
damp, and generally in mines into which a great amount
o
f air has to be led, the quantity of air alone often decide
s

the dimensions of the
levels. Of course, we could driv
e double the amount
3

of air into the mine by
doubling the velocity of the air, but then the resistance would increase
fourfold
,
and the powe
r necessary to drive the fan eightfold. For, with greater velocity, the
resi
stance increases as the square
4

of the velocity and the consumption of
energy
by the fan as the cube
5
.

As the energy necessary to drive the fan would be too
great, and as excessive

velocity of the air and greatly increased pressures also hav
e
many drawbacks of their own
6
,

we choose
for

preference larger sections.

b)
This has also other advantages: it is easier to work in wide levels. Their
maintenance is, of course, more difficult,

and to drive them is more expensive. But
wh
en the rock is suitable and not

subject
ed

to much pressure, thereby making the
maintenance expensive, we preferably drive wide levels. The cost of doing so does
not increase proportionally with the cro
ss
-
section
because in a narrow s
pace
driving is more difficult, and it is also more difficult to break the rock from the
face. Too much restriction in the dimensions usu
ally has to be paid for later
7
.

In

17

good ground the section can be increased considerably with only

a small increase
in cost. Especially where conditions give a strong roof, it is better not to economize
on the section.

It is apparent
that wherever there is a choice
8
,
it is preferable to make the
galleries in firmer rock in order that the maintenance c
ost may be as low as
possible, even though the actual driving becomes more expensive. For long
-
term
galleries the maintenance costs are decisive.

In poor rocks and in rocks developing great pressure maintenance and
driving are costly, as we have to use sp
supporting is essential from the very beginning.

Furthermore, we must keep in mind that horizontal drives, especially where
there is a steep
dip

of the deposit, suffer more from pressure than
inclines
. The
horizontal dr
ive
undercuts

the beds in their entire length, and with a steeper dip
the beds above tend to press into the drive. The roof, too, presses downward
parallel
to

the dip of the beds. These fac
tors make complicated demands
9

on the
support of a horizontal drive
.

This is not the case
10

with inclines where the movement and pressure of the
beds act parallelly to the excavation, and the beds are not undercut in the direction
in which they have a tendency to move. Thus they are relatively stable, and there is
not mu
ch pressure on the incline.

The levels are used primarily for the transport of the ore from the mine to the
shaft. The workers walk or are transported through

them to and from the stopes
11
,
and tools and material also pass
es

through them into the mine. Th
erefore they have
to be as straight as possible: in mechanical transport (with cable or
chain
-
haulage

direction cause great d
ifficulties and are costly, and
, of course, also sl
ow down the
rate of extraction. Therefore small deviations in the strike
of the deposit are not
followed
12
, but straight haulageways
are driven. More recently the development of
haulage technique has made it necessary to shift the main haulageways outside
the
ore deposit simply to make them straight and free from pressure effects, and
thus
avoid frequent repairs of

the supports.

the ore

body, and we must never allow such a drive t
o
undulate

as roads do on the
surface, because the drainage of water would be difficult and there would be
danger from flooding.

Haulage would also be hampered
13
.

The gradient of the
drive has to be very regular and gentle, usually between 1 : 500 and 1: 1
,000
14
, i.e.

When planning the opening
-
up and preparatory works we have to remember
that as soon as the workings have attained a certain size it is necessary to have two
exits from the mine, and from each working place, in case of accide
nt. As their air
current also requires an entrance and an exit, the same levels or drifts serve both
purposes.



18

COMMENTARY TO THE

TEXT
:

1)
the

deposit

to

be

mined



месторождение
,
которое

должно

быть

разработано

2)

single

or

double
-
railed



являю
тся

ли

они
/
откаточные

пути
/
одно
-

или

двухпутевыми

3)

double the amount


в два раза больше

4)

as the squar
e of



пропорционально квадрату

5)

as
the cube


пропорционально кубу

6)

o
f their own


своих собственных

7)

has to be paid for later


должно

сказат
ься впоследствии

8)

wherever there is a choice


в том слу
чае, если предоставляется выбор

9)
make

complicated

demands



предъявляют высокие требования к

10)

this is not the case


это не относится

к

11)
to

and

from

the

stopes



к

очистным

забоям

и

обратно

12)
are

not

followed



/
зд
./
не

учитываются

13)
haulage

would

also

be

hampered



откатка

также

была бы

затруднена

14) 1 : 500


one in five hundred;

1 : 1,000


one in one thousand


WORDS TO MEMORIZ
E:

Nouns:
working, development, output, support, amount, r
epair, q
uantity,
dimension, velocity,
installation, consumption
,
maintenance, restriction, choice,
cost

Verbs:
facilitate, extract, precede, execute, prepare, desire, last
,
keep, suffer,
undercut, tend, demand, act

Adjectives: suitable, double, excessive,
expensive, preferable, apparent,
actual, decisive, essential, entire, stable

Expressions: from the point of view,
ther
eby, in order that, furthermore


EXERCISES:

Ι
. Group
the synonymous words
in pairs:

purpose


apply

employ


obtain

opening


make




solid

do



instruments

hard



aim

tools



working


I
Ι
. Give the degrees of comparison of th
e given adjectives and adverbs:

good, bad, many, difficult, evident, ste
ep, essential, expensive


II
Ι
. Answer the following questions
:

1.
What is the purpose of the opening
-
up works?

2.
What works precede mining proper?

3.
Do we continue the preparatory work too far?


19

4.
How long is every working used?

5.
Does the amount of
production from a given locality affect
the support of
the working
?

6.
By what factors
are the dimensions
of the haulageways

7.
What often decides the dimensions of the levels?

8.
What advantages has a wide level?

9.
In what rocks are mainte
nance and driving (costly) expensive?

10.
What factors make complicated demands on the support of a horizontal
drive?

11.
Why are the inclines relatively stable?

12.
For what purpose are the levels used?

13.
Why have the levels to be as straight as possibl
e?

14.
Why have the levels to be almost horizontal?

15.
What is the gradient of the drive?

16.
How many exits are necessary from each working place and from the
mine?


Ι
V
. Group

antonyms

in pairs:

above



hard

soft



lower

quick



unusual

raise



give

usua
l



unknown

take



top

well
-
known


below

bottom


slow


TEXT 4:

OPENING UP

WORKS


Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов
обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия:


1) Vertical Shafts

(a) Vertical shafts are used especially for
hoisting
; the
y also serve as the
entrance into and the exits from the mine; timber and other material are transported
through them, as well as filling material, and they constitute the airways. The
pipelines for removing the water, the electric cables, the pipelines fo
r compressed
the ore or coal, they form the main working shafts. When they serve for ventilation
they are

only
certain special purposes, e.g. the transport of filling material, as emergency exits,

A shaft

need not open on the surface
1
.

When it begins below the surface it is
called “an underground shaft” (
blind shaft
).


20

The
return upcast shaft

often serves also for the transport of men and
material, for the compressed air pipeline, for the electric cables, water
-
pipes, etc.,
so that the main shaft is not disturbed by frequent repairs and can be used entirely
for hoisting
.

The performance of the shaft may be increased by increasing the hoisting
speed, by shortening the time for loading and unloading, i.e. by suitable equipment
and circulation of the cars at the shaft stations in the mine and on the surface, and
by employin
g multi
-
compartment cages. At present we have cages with up to
eig
ht
2

compartments, which can hoist a great number of trucks and a large body of
workers. In the shaft there are two hoisting compartments side by side. A greater
hoisting performance can be a
chieved also by the use of
skips.

Vertical shafts are c
ut almost without exception through the b
e
ds. In
horizontal or slightly inclined beds we also traverse and explore by this means the
overburden and ascertain its nature, which cannot be done by incline
s. That the
vertical shaft traverses
,

the
overburden

may on the other hand be a great
disadvantage
,

when the overburden includes wear rock
saturated
with water. Upon
the nature of the rock through which the shafts are sunk depends the choice of their
shape

and manner of their support.


2) Incline Shafts in

the Deposit

We usually sink incline shafts directly
down

the dip of the deposit. They
serve the same purpose as vertical shafts.

ce
and by size of the output. Usually the section is 3 x 2.50


6 x

2.50 m.
3

We divide
the shafts into different compartments in the same way as we divide the vertical
shafts: manway, skipway (hoisting compartment), pumping compartment (for
pipelines, cabl

Incline shafts in the deposit have the advantage that, when sinking them, we
explore the nature of the deposit. A certain amount of ore is also obtained, which
pays, at least in p
art, for the costs of sinking
4
.

Water
-
bearing beds, which perhaps
have developed in the overlying strata, are also avoided. In using inclines there is
no need for lengthy
crosscuts
; this is very important saving in gently inclined
seams

and in deep mines where the crosscuts of the lower levels are rather long.

But incli
ne shafts have also serious drawbacks. They suffer more from
pressure than vertical shafts, hoisting is more difficult and slower because the
guides and cable suffer more. They cannot be used at all, or offer no advantages, in
folded and faulted

deposits o
r in a deposit
w
here the dip changes frequently and
the deposit. Also for deposits wi
th a thick overburden at the sur
face they cannot be
used very well. No
t when they are sunk
through the overburden, as is done in the
case of horizontal or thick deposits situated near the surface, the layout of the mine
becomes simpler in this way.

On the Continent vertical shafts are the rule; British and American minin
g
engineers, however, ma
ke use
5

of incline ones. Much depends, of course, on the
structural conditions.


21

3) Incline Shafts Sunk Outside the Deposit

Incline shafts sunk outside a deposit are of importance not only for
dipping
but also for folded or disturbed seams and for thick de
posits near the surface.


COMMENTARY TO THE

TEXT
:

1.

A

shaft

need

not

open

on

the

surface



нет

необходимости
,
чтобы

ствол

выходил

на

поверхность


2.
up to eight


до

восьми

3.
3 x 2.50


6 x 2.50 = from three by two and a half to six by two and a half


о
т

трех

на

два

с

половиной

до

шести

на

два

с

половиной

4.
which pays, at least in part, for the costs of sinking


которое

окупает
,
по

крайней

мере

частично
,
затраты

по

проходке

5.
to make

use


использовать



WORDS TO MEMORIZ
E:

Nouns:
hoisting, entrance, e
xit, airway, truck
,
performance, car, cage, skip,
compartment

Verbs:
fill, equip, achieve, traverse
,
obtain, suffer, situate

Adjectives:
frequent, downcast, upcast
,
slow, considerable, simple

Expressions
: up to, at present


EXERCISES:

I
. Answer the followi
ng questions

1. For what purpose are vertical shafts used?

2. What do we call “blind shaft”?

3. For what purpose does the return or upcast shaft serve?

4. How can we increase the performance of the main shaft?

5. Where are vertical shafts cut through?

6.
Where do we usually sink incline shafts?

7.
Is the size of the section determined by the size of the output?

8.
What is the advantage of incline shafts?

9.
What are serious disadvantages of incline shafts?


ΙΙ
. Give synonyms
to

the words:

drawback, cert
obtain, gently, bed, frequently


ΙΙΙ
. Give antonyms
to

the words:

disadvantage, slow, main, shaft, decrease,
lengthen, unloading, overlying rock, simple


4) Crosscuts

(a) Crosscuts are horizontal or almost horizontal workings lea
ding to the
deposit across the beds, usually at a right angle to the strike of the beds or simply
at a right angle to the deposit, as e.g. in the case of
veins

in
eruptive

rocks. It is the
shortest way to the deposit, and therefore the cheapest one. In mou
ntainous
regions, and with steeply inclined deposits we can drive the crosscuts from the

22

surface (
adits
and the deposit proper or between an incline shaft and the deposit, when the incline

shaft lies outside the deposit.

With a regularly inclined and a simple deposit, e.g. one coal
seam
, the
division of the galleries into inclines and horizontal drives is very easy. Here also
the term crosscut is clear. But with a horizontal
tabular

deposit

there is no
therefore
ambiguous

in this connection. The same also applies to deposits in the
d
eposits it is necessary to t
reat the whole area as a unit
1
.

In such cases a crosscut
runs in one place across the beds, in another section parallel
to

the strike of the
beds, or
obliquely

to the strike.

In large and deep coal mines the costly sinking of tw
in shafts, and the costly
building up of the whole enterprise
necessitate
the

allotment

of a large area. Such
an area is divided into several separate sections (fields, districts or divisions). For
each we make a separate crosscut, which of course is drive
n to make the shortest
connecti
on with the section concerned
2
.

From the main shaft several crosscuts then
run in different directions, and of course some of them are oblique to the strike of
the beds or parallel to it. In a large field a long crosscut trav
erses several sections
of different geological structures.

(b) The main crosscut traverses the entire mining field and penetrates
through all deposits. There is such a crosscut at each level. It is the main
one for
the level in question
3
.

It serves the sam
e purpose as the shaft, and thus it must have
the correct cross
-
section, and has to be particularly well constructed, as repairs
of

its support would hold up the transport of the entire level. Nevertheless its life is
shorter than that of the main shaft, a
s it is no longer needed after the level has been
mining the next lowe
r level, unless the air is led
4

by another route. When we
y abandon it. Thus its support, though it

be less so than in the shaft
5
,

the enterprise.

Crosscuts have usually a trapezoid cross
-
made circular or elliptic, and enti
rely walled, especially in weak rock. A circular
cross
-
section is neat, resistant to pressure, but of small capacity. There is much

Crosscuts slope a little towards the shaft so that water can

flow
off of its own
accord
6
.
The gradient is chosen so that the energy needed for the transport of a full
truck to the shaft is the same as for the transport of an empty one from the shaft
into t
he workings, i.e. about 1 : 250.

But if waste for filling ha
s to be transported
into the mine, the grad
ient is usually only 1 : 1000, when well
-
made,

this is
sufficient t
o allow the water to run off
7
.


5) Auxiliary Crosscuts

(c)
After traversing by a crosscut we drive in each deposit a
horizontal
drift

which has to

serve for the whole of the output of the particular level and zone of

23

the deposit in which it is driven. When the distance to the boundaries of the field is
long, the drive in the deposit will be used for a considerable time, and as the
pressure on it is
considerable, its maintenance costs will also be high. Therefore,
deposit, we make a main drive for the whole group of seams in the underlying
rocks, and from this main dr
ive we
branch off
, at distances of 100 to 500mm,
making auxiliary crosscuts to the different deposits.

be mined out more rapidly, worked intensively independently of the neighbour
ing
sections. Levels in the deposit itself after the section is mined are
superfluous

and
can be
abandoned
. As the mining of shorter sections does not take a long time,
these levels can be more simply equipped. B
8

in
obtaining
a greater number of
stopes
. They will then be mined simultaneously, and
thus we get a much greater

output than if we used level
9

made in the seams.

difficulties in ve
n
tilation and where
the rock pressure is great. It is especially
the coal seams are divided into shorter level sections and we need not maintain
drives made in

the deposit while mining out

the whol
e length of the level, but only
time.


6) Adits (Tunnels)

Crosscuts which open on to the surface are called
adits
. When they run at a
shallow depth below the surface, they ar
e connected at regular intervals with the
surface by small
winzes

or
raises

which aid ventilation during driving and
or more places.


COMMENTARY TO THE
TEXT
:

1) to
treat the whol
e area as a unit


рассматривать

весь

участок

как

одно

целое
.

2) the section concerned


участок
,
о

котором

идет

речь
.

3) the level in question


горизонт, о котором идет речь
.

4) unless the air is

led


если воздух не отводится
.


in the shaft


может быть все

же менее прочн
ым
,
чем в стволе
.

6) of its own accord


сама
.

7
) to allow the water to run off


чтобы

вода

ушла

8
) we also succeed


нам также удается

9
) if we used levels


если бы мы использовали выработки /levels
-
зд.
выраб
отки/


24

WORDS TO MEMORIZ
E:

Nouns:
angle, cost, enterprise, adit, stockwork
,
drive, waste, route, path
,
drift, output, boundary, field, seam

Verbs:
lead, connect, traverse, disturb, run
,
allow, wall, last, lay, fill
,
drive,
branch off, ensure, alter, succeed

Adjectives:
cheap, proper, steep, regular, oblique
,
close, rapid, solid, entire,
resistant
,
whole, considerable, shallow

Adverbs: n


EXERCISES:

Ι
. Give the positive degree of the adjectives:

shortest, cheapest, most incline,
deeper, greate
st, lower.


II
. Answer the following questions
:

1. What is a crosscut?

2. Are crosscuts
located at the right angle to the deposit
?

3. In what cases do the horizontal drives and the inclines differ?

4. Can a long crosscut traverse several sections of differ
ent geological
structures?

5.
What purpose does the main crosscut serve?

6
.
What cross
-
section do crosscuts usually have?

7
.
Why do crosscuts slope a little towards the shaft?

8
.
For what purpose do we drive a horizontal drift in each deposit?

9
.
Do we mak
e a main drive for the whole group of seams in the underlying
rocks?

1
0
.
How can each section between the auxiliary crosscuts be mined?

1
1
.


I
ΙΙ
. Group in pairs
:

a) s
ynonyms
;


b) a
ntonyms
;

apply

chief different separate

path enough output underground

solid flow
-
off clos
e together deep

sufficient way shallow production

entire use difficult natural

run off w
hole thin the same

main hard artificial easy

aid help on the surface

thick


Ι
V
. Give synonyms
to

the words:

solid, way, apply, entire, help, chief,
sufficient, run of
f


V. Give antonyms
to

the words
:
deep, thin, easy, close, together, artificial,
undergro



25

7)
S
haft

stations and
circuits

Shaft stations are enlarged cavities made at

different levels at the junction of
crosscuts (and, in general, the levels leading from the shaft) with the shaft. Usually
they are enlarged beginnings of crosscuts. Their height is
usually greater than that
of the galleries, especially at the shaft itsel
f, as they have to serve for

the handling
of long objects (
cage

into the levels and also for
the manipulation of
chute doors
. They are made particularly high where raised
platforms are used, and where, in
shunting

the t
rucks, we do not move the cage
but push the trucks in simultaneously from all the platforms. This is done wherever
there is
a h
igh output, and when it is important to load the cage quickly at the shaft
station. For this purpose an auxiliary lift (cage) is
also often used. Similar
contrivances

are found at
bank
, where we again push the trucks from the cage
simultaneously from all its compartments. Here the
banking

arrangement must, of
course, have as many platforms as the cage has. Support of the shaft stati
ons is
particularly thorough, as repairs to the roofs and walls

would greatly hamper
traffic
1
.

The station
s

are usually lighted by electricity.

At the shaft station the full trucks are assembled and pushed into the cage
and the empty ones arranged
in train
s for re
-
distribution
2
.

Usually several sets of
rails are laid down side by side so as to facilitate the
marshalling

and distribution
ore is tipped out of the trucks, sor
ted, classified, and stored until
hoisted

in the
cage. To a certain extent this makes the transport in the levels independent of the
transport in the shaft. Often, especially in hoisting with
skips, storage bins


are built at the shaft station.

Ti
mber and all building material, machine, tools, and accessories of all kinds
are also unloaded at the shaft station. Here the workers gather on leaving or
entering the cage and are divided into groups before going to their working places,
if this is not do
ne on the surface. Notice
-
boards with various instructions are hung
here.

The shaft station also houses the different devices for signa
l
ling and warning
the workers and for direct communication with them (telephone or speaking tube);
first
-
aid kit,
er
and
dressings
, and drinking water are also installed here.
The mine pumps, auxiliary fans, etc., are frequently placed in a special chamber at
the shaft station. But the stock of exp
losives is in no circumstances
3

placed here,
though it is usually found

best to have it fairly close to the shaft station.

To
facilitate

the
handling

of the trucks and to speed them around there are
circuits
, or
roundabouts
, i.e. circular galleries made at the different levels.

They enable
empty trucks to be pushed out
4

of th
e cage on one

side and
simultaneously the full ones to be pushed in on the other side, thus ensuring a more
mechanical equipment of the shaft station is simple in small min
es and
complicated in the big ones.



26

COMMENTARY TO THE

TEXT
:

1) as repairs to the roofs and wall
s would greatly hamper traffic


т
.
к
.
ремонт

кровли

и

стенок

создаст

помехи

транспорту

2)
for

re
-
distribut
ion


для распределения по участкам

3) in no circums
tances


ни при каких условиях, никогда

4)
they

enable

empty

trucks

to

be

pushed

out

the

full

ones

to

be

pushed

in



они

дают

возможность

выталкивать

пустые

вагонетки



и

закатывать

груженые


WORDS TO MEMORIZ
E:

Nouns:
shaft station, circu
it, cavity, bank,

device, fan, pump

Verbs:

enlarge, push, arrange, store, hoist, gather, enter
,

house, warn, install,
enable, ensure

Adjectives:

empty, direct, fair, rapid

Expressions:

in general, to a certain extent


EXERCISES:

Ι
. Form verbs from the following nouns:

excav
ation, requirement,
formation, separation, direction, pressure, assistance, undercut


Ι
I
. Answer the following questions
:

1.
What is a shaft station?

2
.
What purpose does the shaft station serve?

3
.
Where are the shaft stations made particularly high?

4
.
H
ow are the stations usually lighted?

5
.
Why are several sets of rails laid down side by side at the stations?

6
. What materials are loaded at the shaft stations?

7
. What devices do the shaft stations house?

8
. For what purpose are circular galleries made?

9
.
What do circuits ensure?

1
0
. Do circuits also aid the circulation of the air?


II
Ι
. Form the adjectives from the following adverbs:

commonly, mainly,
rarely, gradually, usua
lly, commercially,
considerably, simply, immediately,
especially


27

UNIT IV: DEVELOPMENT WORK


TEXT 1:

Main
Haulageways:
Group Levels, Subdeposit Levels


Прочитайте и

переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов
обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия:


It is not possible to make a horizontal drive directly in the deposit in heavily
folded, faulted, and irregular
deposits. Not can this be done
1

in these deposits of

too
soft a nature
2

because of the excessive pressure which develops after
excavation and in the course o
f mining the ore

body. Also, where several seams are
grouped close together, it is more advantageous to establish one main haulageway
for all of them. Such
a drive is
bu
ilt in the solid rock underlying the group of seams
which it has to serve, or in the flop of a thick deposit; we drive it quite straight and
build
it as solidly as it

necessary
3
.
This is done to prevent interruptions in
hauling

for repairs. It
is preferable to construct the main
haulageway

as a subdeposit
drives because drives in the deposit suffer considerably from pressure as soon as
mining has
progressed a certain distance
4
.

Further, one haulageway can be better
equipped than several haulagew
ays, one for each seam.

Of course, the most favourable rock for driving is selected. We call such
drives group levels or subdeposit levels.


TEXT 2:
Drives

Drives are very important mining works. They divide the whole deposit into
longitudinal

regions whic
h can be mined out systematically one after
an
other. They
make possible the exploration of the deposit along the strike. They often proceed
Many author
s

include them among the p
reparatory works. They make possible a
horizontal advance into the ore

body as well as the mining of whole long zones of
the deposit above the drive. In this respect they are already a preparation for
mining. When the whole section above the drive i
s mined

out, the drive itself
se
rves as a return ventilation drive, when the next lower level is mined.

Drives are very important for transport, and therefore they are constructed
relatively solidly. Their life when one seam is being mined is about the same as
th
at of a crosscut or a little shorter. When several seams are being mined their life
is still shorter, as a drive is used only for the output of the section situated above it,
whereas a crosscut serves for the output of all the drives from all the seams whi
ch
it crosses, i.e. of the drives on both sides of it.

Drives have, according to their importance, a

cross
section
“clear” or 1.5 x
2m to 3 x 2 m
5
; as they advance into the workings they rise, like the crosscuts, so
as to permit the run
-
off water and to fa
cilitate the haulage of the full trucks from
the workings. Their gradient is usually 1 : 250, and only when filling

material is to
be transported

along them as little as 1 : 1000.


28

In mountainous regions, where the configuration of the surface allows it, an
d
especially where the deposit outcrops, we drive into the deposit, directly from the
surface.

Drives which open up a deposit and make it accessible along its length, and
which are, like the corresponding crosscut, the basis for the division of the deposit

into levels, are also called level drives in contradistinction to the sublevel drives.
By their nature the sublevel drives are preparatory works.


TEXT 3:
Twin Drives: Companion Drives

In coal mines, and, in general, in not too firm rocks, or where there
is a
danger of inrushes of water, caving of the drive, or the outbreak of fires, explosion,
workers, for if the roof caves in one drive, they have the chance of escaping

through the other.

Ventilation is also assisted
6
.

These two drives are driven close
about 50
-
100 m the two drives are connected by a break
-
through in order to make
air ci
rculation possible. The parallel drive is called “companion drive”.


TEXT 4:

Overbreaking and Underbreaking

In making drives through thin seams we widen them either by
overhand
-

or
by
underhand stoping

or by both; the method is chosen according to the natu
re of
the rocks in the overlying and underlying beds and according to how we want to
remove the
waste
.


TEXT 5:
Transverse Galleries (Break
-
throughs)

Auxiliary crosscuts are in fact also the
transverse galleries

which are made
in thick deposits across the
ore

body in order to divide it into sections along the
strike.

They serve only a short time and run across the whole thickness of the
deposit only; and therefore they are usually shorter.


TEXT 6:

To dispose of the waste from the stoping, we mine,
simultaneously with
driving, a narrow panel of coal or mineral from the side of the drive and place the
more advantageous than it actually is. Inrushes of water and gas accu
mulated in


TEXT 7:
Sublevel Drives

Level drives divide the deposit into horizontal zones, delimit the ground
section,

for airways, for the
run
-
off of water
, and for the transport of material into
the workings. In addition to these drives, other drives are often made in a section,
especially in gently inclined deposits. These divide the deposit into narrower
panels and zo
nes, which are mined one after
anot
her, or simultaneously. Thus, we

29

obtain a number of stopes and haulages and increase the output. These drives are
called sublevel drives, they are narrower and more single in support and equipment
than level drives


as t
hey serve a smaller purpose.


COMMENTARY TO THE
TEXT
:

1.
Not

can

this

be

done



это

нельзя

сделать

2.
of too soft a nature


из
-
за

мягкой

породы

3.
and build it as solidly as it

necessary


и

крепим

е
е

как

можно

прочнее

4.
as soon as mining has progressed a certain distance


как

только

выработка

продвин
улась

на

какое
-
то

расстояние

5
.



6
.
Ventilation

is

also

assisted



ч
то

также

способствует

проветриванию


WORDS TO MEMORI
Z
E:

Nouns:
haulage, seam, subdeposit
,
a cross
-
section, truck, gradient, twin
drives, danger,
outbreak
,
run
-
off
.

Verbs:
advance, situate, allow, outcrop, inrush, aid, escape
,
remove, dispose

of
, appear, accumulate
.

Adjectives:
regular, excessive, solid, thick
,
relative, clear
, corresponding,
firm
,
narrow, actual
.

Adverbs:

whereas, apart
.


EXERCISES
:

Ι
. Answer the following questions:

1.
Why is it impossible to make a horizontal drive directly in faulted
deposit?

2.
Where is it preferabl
e to construct the main haulage
way?

3.
What are drives?

4.
For what purpose are drives used?

5.
Why are some drives s

6.
What does a drive serve for when the whole section above the drive is
mined out?

7
. What is the life of a drive?

8
. What is the cross section of drives

according to their importance
?

9
. When are two parallel drives dr
iven simultaneously?

10.
In w
hat wa
у

are two drives driven?

11.
What are transverse galleries?

12.
What do we call a pocket?

13.
Do sublevel drives divide the deposit into narrower panels and zones?


ΙΙ
. Give synonyms
to

the words:

choose, excessive, rock pressure, caving,
exploration, favo
urable, systematically, in this way, aid
.



30

Ι
II
. Give antonyms
t
o the words:

l
oose rock, narrow, one after
an
other,
underbreaking dangerous
.


TEXT 8:

Gravity Inclines and Winzes

Gravity inclines

are opening
s

made in the direction of the dip of the deposit.
The ore mined in the corresponding region is transported through t
hem, usually to
the next lower le
vel drive. As it is not always convenient to use gravity inclines in
more steeply inclined deposits as routes for the workers, manways have to be
made, eithe
r on one or on both sides of the incline. Between the manways and the
gravity incline there is usually a
. Often the gravity incline and the
to the other is mined o
ut. The pillars between the gravity incline and the manways
are then built from
filling waste
. To be able to cross from one side of the gravity
incline to the other

it is necessary to make a connection below or above it.

The gradient of the gravity incline

the incline is built as one
-
way or two
-
way conn
e
ction.

The height is usually about
2
-
2.5m.

As the gravity incline is used only during t
he working life of one region, it
is constructed to last only for this period. A gravity incline has to be provided with
safeguards for the workers employed at the bottom in case of falls.

We associate with gravity inclines the similar openings in a deposi
t through
which, under certain conditions, the mineral is raised to a higher level. Such
inclines are called
winzes
. They differ from gravity inclines proper only in their
hoisting arrangements. For gravity inclines a br
e
aking arrangement is often
sufficie
nt whereas winzes have to be equipped with hoisting machinery. Winzes
are really interior shafts serving a particular region. They may serve also as
air

ducts
. Often they are only
sumps

for the
exploration of t
he deposit.


TEXT 9:
Raises

and
Chutes

In steeply inclined deposits we often make raises, working from below
upwards, as the task is easier than when done

from above downward. They are
often entirely
timbered

or
walled
-
in
. The ore is transported to the low
er drive
through them as well as the filling waste and other material required, e. g. timber.

Raises are often made only in the filling, as is the case in
overhand mining.

A chute is an opening, usually of smaller dimensions,

for the passage of ore.
The lo
wer end of a chute is usually

provided with a suitable
trap door

which
allows the cars to

be easily loaded.

Once a winze or raise (staple shaft, in coal mining) is made it is not possible
to tell, whether it was made from above downward or from below upwar
d, except
that what it was first called it is always afterwards called. Often the chutes, winzes
and raises are divided into a mining section and a manway.



31

TEXT 10:

Break
-
throughs
, or
Holings

Excavations made with the object of connecting two parallel dr
ives are
called break
-
throughs, or holings, and from them the winning of the mineral
usually begins. Often this connecting of two parallel
drives

is done to improve
venti
lation and provide an emergency opening in case the roof of a drive should
cave
. G
ener
ally speaking, every connec
break
-
through or holing. Their
cross
-
sectional

area,
gradient
,
support
, and
local conditions.



UNIT IV
: EXCAVATI
ON


TEXT 1:
EXCAVATION


Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов
обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия:


(a)The most important work in mining is the ex
cavation of the mineral or
rock.

Everything done in

the mine is intended
to facilitate and make possible this
a
im of mining. Therefore due attention must always be paid

to this work.

Excavation is the
loosening

and breaking out of the required rock from other
rock
, and loading it onto some means

of transport
1
. This is usually done at the
working face. At the face t
he mineral mined is free only on one side, an
d the other
five sides have to b
e freed, i.e we have to overcome the cohesion with the
neighbo
u
ring rock.We try to ma
k
e this work as easy as possible. This is done by
directing excavation so that we always have
m
o
re than one free surface, and at
least two surfaces, i.e. that the rock mined always forms a corner. Then it is more
easily separated and broken off than the full
straight face. For this reason we direct
the c
utting
.

Steps (advance cuts) are also useful
in this respect.

We proceed

by first making in the rock a so
-
call
ed cut
2
, often narrow, in

which
the remaining whole block can ea
sily be broken.

make

it even if we work exc
lusively mechani
cally, or if we blast
the whole
quantity of material at once.

When we have a cho
ice w
e mine the rock or that part of the deposit
which is
alre
ady fissured by nature, but of s
ource only if it is immaterial whe
ther we obtain
the blocks

whole and undisturbed
3
.

We utiliz
e the natural fissures and cleats which generally tra
verse the rocks
in great number

and estabilish the working face in such a direction as to make
natural fissures facilitate our work in breaking

down.

We also always try to utilize the natural
rock and roof pressure, and where it
is possible
to do so we produce this pressur
e artificially by not filling the mined

out rooms (stoped areas) immediately after mining out some small areas, but by
leaving the roofs over a certain suitable distance unsup
ported for so long that they

32

develop the necessary pressure
which
of its own accord

c
rush
es the rock mined and
thus facilitates our work.

In working we also utilize gravity, and therefore we mine so that the weight
of the rock assists in mining, i.e. we br
eak
overhand
, and in room mining and
undercutting we undercut a whole area. After
weakening
, removing and blasting
the supports or supporting pillars a considerable quantity of the materi
al ca
ves (i.e.

breaks down) and c
rush
es of its own accord
4
. We procee
d in the same way in
quarrying
, so that whole high faces may collapse.

Also, we must always blast from as large a face as possible
5
, as the effect is
then the greatest.

Nowadays we mine:

1)
with
hammerpicks
;

2)
by blasting, where the holes for the charge o
f explosives are drilled
mechanically;

3)
by
undercutting machines

with the use of hammerpicks or

blasting (the
undercutting machine is only an aid in
breaking);

4)
by
undermining

the
deposit and by
block caving
;

5)
with power
shovels
;

6)
by hydraulic mini
ng (using a stream of water);

7)
by
dredges
;

8)
by
wedging
,

as in
quarries
;

9)

by cutting with a
saw

or with an
endless wire
;

10)
by
dissolving

or

melti
ng t
he mineral and
pumping

the resulting solu
tion
of liquid;

11) by pumping, e.g. oil,
brine
, and minera
l waters;

12) by driving air or gases into the deposits of liquid minerals and using the
resulting gaslift to drive them out.


COMMENTARY TO
THE TEXT
:

1.
loading

it

on
to

some

means

of

transport



погрузка

ее

на

какие
-
либо
средства передвижения

2.
by first
making in the rock a so
-
called cut


сначала

делая

в

породе
,

так

называемый
,

вруб

3.
and undisturbed


но

только
,
если

неважно
,
получим

ли

мы

блоки

целые

и

неповрежденные

4.

of its o
wn accord


по
д действием собственной тяжести

5.

we must always blast from as large a face as possible


мы всегда
должны производить взрывание по возможн
ости на большей площади/забоя/


WORDS TO MEMORIZ
E:

Nouns:
choice, aim, at
tention, means, step, cut
,
gr
avity, weight, quarry,
shovel, corner, filling

Verbs:

remain, utilize, establish, excavate, overcome
,
stope, remove, blast,
cave, drive, separate


33

Adjectives:

due, neighbouring, narrow, free
,
immediate, suitable,
considerable

Expressions:

in this respect
, f
or this reason, at once
,
in the same way, at
least, by hand


EXERCISES:

Ι
. A
nswer the following questions:

1.
What is excavation?

2.
Where is excavation usually done?

3.
How do we do the first cut?

4.
Do we utilize natural fissures and roof pressure for exc
avation?

5
.
Can we produce rock and roof pressure artificially?

6
.
How
do we utilize gravity in working?

7
.
Why don't we fill the mined out rooms immediately after mining out small
areas?

8
.
How do we min
e economic minerals nowadays?


TEXT 2:
FUNDAMENTAL RULES IN CHOOSING THE MINING

(
General Remarks
)


Прочитайте и пер
еведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов
обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия:


divided into suitable sections, how the mining proper proceeds, how the broken
rock is transported, how the

workings are ventilated and made safe, how all the
materials and men required are transported, and how the broken
-
out cavities are
deposit, its dip and thickness; by the or
e body and its properties; by the nature of
the overlying, underlying, and
flanking beds
, especially of the roof and the floor;
by the size of the output, by the development of gases and coal dust; by the amount
of inflowing water; by the course of
cleats
,

partings
, and other fissures traversing
the deposit; by the depth at which we mine; and by consideration for the protection
of the surface and many other circumstances.

also the c
heapest under the given conditions
1
. One is the most desirable
2

which
g
ives the greatest output with the smallest number of working hours and the
smallest amount of energy and material expended, while at the same time giving
sufficient safety to the worker
s, and having a favo
u
rable influe
nce on the future
development of

the mine. This is a task in which the mining engineer can show his
knowledge, the keenness of his judg
e
ment, and the maturity of his experience.

they are entirely or partly filled in with waste, and to the way i
n which we effect
the filling
3
.

We also distinguish them according to whether we m
ine from the

34

limits of the mining property towards the
crosscut

or
shaft

(
), or from
the crosscut and shaft towards the boundaries (
advancing
along the strike, down the dip, or against the dip; whether the mining section is
d
bring in the filling material.

Choice of the
Stoping

Method: Decisive Factors

In choosing the s

1) the facility it gives for the breaking out;

2) the amount of mineral broken, i.e. the output;

3) the speed of advance of the face;

4) the possibility of mining all of the economic mineral
s or most of them

(i.e. to
have only slight losses);

5) the possibility of mining clean mineral, not polluting it with waste;

6) the easy access to the slopes and the easy transport of the equipment and
material for support;

7) no excessive demands for support, labour or material;

8
) the facility for transporting the broken ore from the face;

9) the easy bringing in of the waste, and the easy filling of the mine
-
out
cavities, if it is necessary to fill them;

10) the effective and easy ventilation of the stopes;

11) safety of the mine
rs: in the stopes the miners are exposed, especially in

a) falling fragments of mined mineral and the caving of whole mining
breasts

and faces;

b) the fall of fragments from the hanging wall;

c) the danger of
boulders

from the caved rock sliding down the steep floor;

is used, can also roll or slide down the floor;

e) the danger of broken ore, mined by crews working higher up, and sliding
down th
e steep floor.

regard to all the requirements quoted.


COMMENTARY TO THE
TEXT
:

1) under the given conditions


при

данных

условиях

2) one is the most desirable


э
тот

метод

самый

подходящий

3) and to the way in which we effect the filling


и

каким

способом

мы

производим

закладку


WORDS TO MEMORIZ
E:

Nouns:

section, cavity, choice, shape, body
,
knowledge, judgement,

experience, boundary

Verbs:

,
distinguish, effect, advance, carry
off


35

Adjectives:

proper, safe, especial, main, favourable
,
simple, final, entire


EXERCISES:

Ι
. Group in pairs

a) s
ynonyms
;

b) a
ntonyms

appropriate

dimension to fill unsuitable

size inexpensive first safety

amount suitable suitable

to lift

cheap quantity danger finally

limit accomplish to fall waste

carry out task s
ufficient to empty

aim boundary clean mineral insufficient


II
. Give the degrees of comparison
:
short, cheap, great, small, long, many,
much, g
ood, well, suitable, sufficient


I
ΙΙ
. An
swer the following questions
:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
What must we consider in choosing the stoping


Ι
V
. Give synonyms
to

the words:

boundary, size, appropriate, accomplis
h,
task, inexpensive, carry out


Ι
V. Give antonyms
to

the words:
clean material, to fall, suitable, danger,
finally,

sufficient, lift


TEXT
3
:
PRINCIPLES OF MINING


Прочитайте и
переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов
обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия:


are: shape, size, regularity and dip of the ore

body;

distribution of ore, strength and
physical c
haracter of the ore and wall rocks or overlying material; relation of
deposit to surface and to other ore

bodies or to existing shafts of

the same property;
availability, character and cost of
timber

and material for filling. These factors are
interdepende
should give maximum profit and extraction.

impossible, because of their complex relations. Type of stope is used as

a basis for
classification; the stopes themselves are grouped according to modes of supporting
walls and men, as follows:
open stopes, shrinkage stopes, filled stopes, timbered


36

stopes
o
1

that they may

An open
stope

is a stope in w
h
ich no timber or filling is used to support
walls or men; a finished stope is an open
cavity, the walls are supported by
pillars

of ore, or some simple forms of timbering. The term
room
-
and
-
pillar

covers many
leaving pillars at regular intervals; the pillars may b
e left of permanent support or
recovered by
robbing

operations. Suitable deposits for exploitation by room
-
and
-
pillar are flat or slightly dipping beds of uniform
tenor

and character, and of large
area. Cheap, abundant, strong mineral, and a strong
roof

an
d
floor

are necessary if
permanent pillars are left: where ore in pillars is recovered by robbing, a very
strong roof may “hang” over large areas and cause trouble by dropping suddenly.

Sublevel stoping was developed in Michigan iron mines, U.S.A. It is an

ore mined. It does not permit very effective sorting and is therefore applied where
values are fairly uniform. Ore should be strong enough to stand well after
trimming. Wal
ls must be firm or they will cave prematurely and
dilute

the ore.
driving sublevels;

it is best adapted to steep dip
s, but has been successful on flat
dips too.


COMMENTARY TO THE

TEXT
:



встречается

очень

большое

разнообразие

методов

разработки


WORDS TO MEMORIZ
E:

Nouns:

propert
y, open stope, shrinkage stope, filled stope, timbered stope,
-
and
-

Verbs:

dilute, refer, cover,
adapt


E
XERCISES:

Ι
. Translate the
following sentences into English:

1.

Камерно
-
столбовая система разработки рекомендуется при
слегка
падающих пластах
.

2.

Оставлять постоянных целиков не рекомендуется.

3.

Мощность покрывающих пород не велика.

4.

В открытом забое не используется ни крепление
, ни закладка для
поддержания стен
.

5.

Преждевременное обрушение вызывает разубоживание руд.

6.

Стоимость добычи тонны руды не велика на этом участке.


Ι
I
. Answer the following questions:

1.

mining an ore

body?


37

2.

3.

4.

5.
ed in modern mining
practice?

6.
What does a finished open stope represent?

7.
What are the

walls
of the finished stope supported by
?

8.
What is the chief feature in a room
-
and
-
pillar
?

9.
Under what conditions is
room
-
and
-
pillar

applicable?

1
0.
What deposits is sub


III
. Translate with a dictionary:

blasting efficiency; specific gravity;
tungsten carbide tipped chised bits; tra
ckless production hauling equipment; a new
1,552
-
ft. 32x8
-
ft. 5
-
compartment vertical production shaft; reasonable estimates;
heavy timber; close spacing of holes; regular intervals; economic road grade; rated
number of shots; crude magnetite ore; suspended

rock dust.


I
V. A dialogue:

A.

Do you know what the origin of the word “Mine” is?

B.

Sorry, I don‱t.

A.

Well, then, I once happened to read a book about ancient times and
f
ound out that the
word “mine” dates back to the 5th century B.C. In Greece of that
time it meant a certain sum of money, and in Rome it was a silver coin of a fixed
value. In India and Egypt about 300 years B.C. “mine” also meant money. From
the origin of the word one may follow the development of its modern meaning,
namely, “a pit for w
orking out some valuable mineral
s

for the benefit of men”.
Sure, there is romance in it.

B.

I am quite satisfied with your information and in my turn I would like
to ask you some question. How would you translate such an expression used in
modern speech: “
The novelist has written a little gold mine”?

A.

exceptionally good.

B.

I can tell you another interesting expression:

“This

man is a mine of
knowledge”. Tr
y to find a good Russian translation
of these two expressions.

A.

I see, you are trying to spring a mine on me, but never mind, I‱ll find
the best possible translation of your expressions.


TEXT
4
:
PRINCIPLES OF MINING


Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенн
ых слов
обратитесь к словарю в конце пособия:


Shrinkage stopes are
overhand

stopes where part of the broken ore remains
in the stope as a means of support and affords a working platform until the stope is

38

-
bodies it can be ap
plied where the ore

body itself is
self
-
sustaining across its width and where the walls are sufficiently firm to stand
without support over a considerable length along the strike of the
vein
. The range
of dip permi
ssible is from 50 to 90 deg
1
.

s not confined to wide veins alone but may be applied to
narrow steeply inclined veins. With veins of great length, the stopes are usually
separated by pillars. In mines with stopes 60 ft. wide along the length of the vein
and extending from hanging to foo
twall,
pillars

42 ft. wide separate the stope. The
ve
rtical height of a stope depends

upon the dip of the vein. With flat veins of
moderate thickness and 50
-

to 55
-
deg. dip a level interval of 150 to 175 ft. is
permissible. It is evident that an increased
interval between levels prolongs the
surplus ore can be drawn off.
This ordinarily amounts to 1/3
2

of the broken ore. For
every ton of ore produced from a given stope 3 ton
s must be broken and 2 tons left
in the stope. For ore

bodies of moderate length and height it is possible to plan for
the winning of the ore

body in one stope from a single level.

Filled stopes, as the term is us
ed here, is the stope in which a

support fo
r
walls an
d men and, at times, for the bac
k of ore is furnished by waste rock, tailing
s

or sand, which are called filling. Filling is an integral part of stoping; generally, the
ore

body is excavated in small sections, filled wholly or in part before the a
djacent
ground is attack
ed. The use of timber, if any
3
,

is or tempor
ary support of back and

Most filled stopping is done in
overhand

flat back
stepped face

or
rill

stopes
. The surface of fill is kept roughly para
llel to the stope back. As the stope
progresses, chutes (usually of timber) are carried up through the fill, giving access
to the s
tope and delivering the broken o
re to the level below. The height of the
section mined before filling depends on the characte
vary with the size and the shape of the stope and source of fill
ing. Modes of
arranging haulage
ways and of robbing level pillars vary with the strength of walls
and ore, and the width of the ore

body.

In overhand filled stop
es, the operations of breaking or cutting a slice from
the back of the stope and then filling the excavated area, have led to the wide u
se
of the term cut and
fill. A
flat
back filled stope

is called a horizontal cut

and

fill; a
filled rill

stope, an incli
ned
cut and
fill stope
. The term filled stope is also applied
caving or
subsidence
.


COMMENTARY TO THE

TEXT
:

1) deg. = degree(s)


градусы

2) 1/3 = one third (a third)



одна

трет
ья

3) if any = if any timber is used



если

используется

крепь


WORDS TO MEMORIZ
E:

Nouns:

overhand stope, level interval, back tailings, rill stope, flat back
fill stope


39

Verbs:

confine, draw off, remain

Adjectives:

temporar
y, square, flat, evident


EXERCISES:

Ι
. Translate into English:

1.

При системе с закладкой часто используются хвосты для закладки
выработанного пространства.

2.

Руда выпускается из люков в лежачем боку.

3.

П
осле отбойки слоя руды производится закладка выра
ботанного
пространства.

4.

Крепления требуется мало.

5.
Допустимый диапазон падения рудного тела

от

5

до

90˚.


TEXT
5
:
PRINCIPLES OF MINING



Прочитайте и переведите текст, для перевода выделенных слов
обратитесь к словарю в конце посо
бия:


undercut and t
hen broken down by its weight or

by the weight of the overlying
rock, or by a combination of both. But as a result of

custom, operations involving
ca
ving of the mate
rial overlying an ore

body, as a systematic and essential part of
the work, are also classed as caving methods, though practically all the ore is
sublevel caving
,
block

caving
and
top
-
slicing
, result

from this classification, each having many
modifications.

Top
-
Slicing:
-

The field of use is in wide veins, masses, or thick beds of
weak ore, where clean mining and high extraction are desired. Each floor is mined
in small sections, the roof of each bein
g allowed or forced to cave before an
adj
acent one is attacked
1
.

The work on each floor retreats from the limits of ore
toward the points of an entry; all the ore is broken by blasting.

Subl
evel Caving, a logi
cal development of top
-
slicing.
Suitable ore

b
odies
are wide deposits of moderately soft or moderately firm ore, overlain by ground
which will cave readily but coarsely, to form a
capping

which will arch and
support itself temporarily over small openings. The latter condition is neither
necessary no
r

desirable in top
-
slicing.

-
slicing in that the ore is mined in horizontal
slices in descending order, so that the overburden, or capping, will break up and
subside

as the ore beneath is removed. Fundamental difference is that the h
eight of
slices in sublevel caving is usually 15
-
25 ft. as against 10
-
12 in top
-
slicing.
Timbered
slice
drifts

are driven as in top
-
slicing, but a back of ore 7
-
15 ft. thick is
mat
, this back of ore being
removed by mining and caving, starting at the far end of the slice drift and


40

Block
Caving. Large sections or blocks of the ore

height of 400 ft. or more, are successively undercut and allowed to
slough

a
nd
cave above the undercut portion. Drawing off the caved ore causes further caving,
often aided and controlled as to its lateral extent by weakening the boundaries of
the block by narrow shrinkage stopes or superimposed
cut
off drifts
. The ore is
caved an
d crushed by its own weight and the weight of the overly
ing capping into
pieces of suita
ble size for handling. Caving usually extends eventual
ly to the
surface, the overburde
Drawing continues unti
l the appearance of overburden material at drawpoints
caving through gradual increase of the height of ore caved in operation.

Suitable ore

bodies are wide veins, thick beds, o
r massive deposits of
homogeneous ore, overlain by ground which will cave readily. The ore must be
such that it can be supported while blocks are developed and undercut, and will
break up when caved.

To increase the rate of caving and for mining hard rock
s which do not break
drilling to assist in breaking the ground.


COMMENTARY TO THE

TEXT
:

1)
the

roof

of

each

being

allowed

or

forced

to

cave

before

an

adjacent

one

is

attacked



причем

кровля

каждой

обрушается

сама

по

себе

или

принудительно
,
прежде

чем

приступить

к

разработке

следующего

слоя


WORDS TO MEMORIZ
E:

Nouns:

slice, top
-
slicing, capping,

forced block caving

Verbs:

undercut, arch, subside, cut off, blast, drill, involve

Adjectives:

essential, distinct, rare, suitable, moderate, coarse

Expressions:

strictly speaking, eventually


EXERCISES:

I
. Translate the following sentences into English:

1.
Система

этажного

обрушения

имеет

широкое

применение
.

2.
Руда

отрабатывается горизонтальными слоями сверху вниз.

3.

Подэтажное обрушение обеспечивает высокий процент извлечения
руды.

4.

Выемка ведется от границ шахтного поля.

5.

На этом участке руда легко о
брушается.


II
. Answer the following questions:


2
. What does a finished open stope look like?

3
. What ore

bodies is s
h
rinkage stoping confined to?

4
. What kind of material is used as filling?


41

5
.
How does mining progress use


6
. Where was sublevel caving first introduced?

7
those in top
-
slicing?

8
. Is block caving a popular mining system?

9
. W
hat does the ap
pearance of overburden material

at drawpoints show?

1
0
. What is the advantage of forced caving?


III
. Translate the following sentence
s with the help of a dictionary:



The most significant development which took place in Canada du
ring the
Algoma district uranium mines from all
-
trackless mining to other systems
employing track haulage. The change
-
over has necessarily added appreciably to
the cost of the plants
, entailing the purchase of locomotives, cars, and rails, and for
some mines of new stope production equipment such as lightweight drills, drill
steel, and slushers. Another large item of expense is in the additional rock work
required


footwall and main
haulage drifts, box
-
holes, and ore passes. A big
advantage of the room
-
and
-
pillar system originally planned is the absence of
development work as such, since almost all work is done in ore with costs paid for
by the contained value of the ore removed.


42

ТЕК
СТЫ ДЛЯ ДОМАШНЕГО
ЧТЕНИЯ


R
OCKS

A rock is a mineral or aggregate of minerals forming on essential part of the
considered as rocks. Of about 1000 species of minerals, only 20 or 3
0 are
important as rock constituents.

T
hree great classes of rocks are: igneous, solidified from fusion;
altered igneous and sedimentary rocks, whose original character has be
en
obscured. It is held that igneous rocks have been the predecessors and source of all
others.

Rock forming minerals comprise silicates, oxides, carbonates, sulphates,
chlorides, phosphates, sulphides, and native elements.


O
CCURRENCE

The principal subst
ances which we obtain from the earth‱s crust are the
required for various chemical manufactures.

The deposits of these various substances occur in the earth‱s crust in var
ious
ways;

for the purpose of the miners
1

they may be conveniently classed, according
to their shape, into:
Ι
. Tabular, and
ΙΙ
. Non
-
tabular. The tabular de
posits may then
be subdivided ac
cording to their origin into two classes: (1) Beds; (2) Ve
ins. For
2

the non
-
tabular deposits may be called (3) Masses.

The classification, therefore, stan
d
s thus:

Ι
. Ta
bular or sheet
-
like deposits.
1. Beds.

2. Veins.

3. Masses.

ΙΙ
. Non
-
tabular deposits


COMMENTARY TO THE
TEXT

1)

for the purpose of the miners


для

инженера

горняка

2) for want of a better word


за

неимением

лучшего

термина


(1) B
EDS OR SEAMS

A “bed” or “seam” is simply some special member of a group of stratified
rocks; in other words, it has been formed as a layer at the bottom of some sea, lake,
or river by the deposition of mud, sand or stones, by the evaporation of saline
solutions, or by


The terms “dip” and “strike” are used with precisely the same meanings as
are given to them by the geologist.

Dip: When a bed or stratum is tilted so as to be inclined in some direction,
the direction of the i
nclination is called dip.

Strike: The horizontal line along the tilted stratum is called the strike, and it
is always at right angles to the dip.


43

The stratum immediately above a bed or seam which is being worked is
usually known as the “roof”, and the stra
tum lying underneath it is called the
“floor” or “pavement”.

Many of the most important mineral deposits in the world are beds
but enough, nevertheless, to make its extracti
on

commercially profitable
1
.


COMMENTARY
TO THE
TEXT

1) commercially profitable


экономически

выгодный


(2)
MINERAL VEINS

A “vein” or “lode” is a tabular body of mineral which has been formed
subsequently to the rocks which enclose it.

The vein locks as if
it had been formed by the growth of layers of mineral
parallel to the sides of a crack or fissure in rocks which had already become hard
and solid. The fissure furnished a channel for mineral solutions which altered the
rocks at its sides and so produced a

sheet of ore
-
bearing material. The vein may
oven be a body of fault
-
breccia or fault
-
conglomerate cemented by minerals which
have been deposited in the interspaces which originally existed between the
fragments, and in the cracks which traversed them.

Whe
n the deposit can cla
im to be of sedimentary origin
1

irrespective of its
valuable ingredient, it is most appropriate to designate it as a “bed” or “seam” in

Like a bed, a vein has its dip

and strike; but as the dip of the vein is
generally great, it is often measured from the vertical, and is then spoken of as
2

the
underlie, underlay, or hade.

The bounding planes of a vein, are called the walls or checks, and they are
frequently smooth or
striated, showing that one side must have slid against the
other. The wall above a lode is called the handing wall, the one underneath, the
foot wall. The rock surrounding and enclosing the lode is called the country.

Veins are of less uniform productivene
ss than beds, and are ra
rely worth
working throughout
3
.

Rich portion alternate with poor or worthless portions.


COMMENTARY TO THE

TEXT

1)
when

the

deposit

can

claim

to

be

of

sedimentary

origin



когда

месторождение

можно

рассматривать

как

осадочное

по

происхождению

2)
it

is

often

measured

from

the

vertic
al
,
and

is

then

spoken

of

as



оно
часто измеряется от вертикали и его называют отклонением, падением или
наклоном жилы

3) and are rarely worth wo
rking throughout


редко

их

выгодно

разрабатывать

полностью


(3) M
ASSES

The term “masses” is simply used to deposits which are neither beds

nor
veins. It brings together
1

a very heterogeneous series of mineral deposits, such as

44

granite and other igneous ro
cks from which we obtain supplies of building stone
and the irregular bodies of haematite. Here, too, are placed the so
-
called “stock
works”, i.e. portions so interpenetrated by a network of small veins that the whole
of the material has to be excavated in

order to extract the ore with profit.


COMMENTARY TO THE
TEXT

1) It brings together


так

называют


BORING

The principal purposes for which the miner employs boring are as follows:

(a) To ascertain the nature of a mineral deposit, its depth from surface,
thickness, dip and strike.


(
c) To obtain gaseous

minerals, such as natural inflam
mable gas, carbonic
acid gas, vapours containing boric acid.

(d) To drain off gas from rocks, and water or gas from mine workings.

(e) To make passages for conveying power into underground workings by
st
eam water, wire ropes, or electricity.

(f) To introduce pipes carrying a freezing solution.

(g) To excavate mine shafts.

There are following
:

1. Rotary drilling. 2.
Diamond drilling. 3. Rope and churn drilling. 4. Hydraulic rota
ry. 5. Jetting


(1) B
ORING BY ROTATION

Soft rocks, such as clay, soft shale, sandy clay, and sand can be bored by an
open auger like the common carpenter‱s tool. As the hole is deepened, the handle
has to be lengthened aft
er the fashion of the wel
l
-
known chimney
-
sweep‱s brush
1
.

But the rocks most commonly explored by the miner are too hard for such augers,
and are attacked by tools in the form of hollow cylinders armed with diamonds or
with steel teeth.

The working part of
the diamond drill consists of a short hollow cylinder of
cast steel, at one end of which a number of black diamonds are fastened in small
cavities. The crown is screwed on to wrought
-
iron pipes, which are made to rotate,
with the result that an annular gro
ove is cut at the bottom of the hole, leaving a
core. The sand and mud formed by the abrasive action of the diamonds are carried
up by the stream of water pumped down the rods, which ascends through the
annular space around them.

Small diamond drills, whi
ch will bore in any direction, and which are driven
by hand, compressed air, or electricity, are largely used both above and below
ground for prospecting.

Exploration by these little machines is very decidedly cheaper than by
driving or sinking by hand in
hard rocks,

and fully ten times as quick
2
.

On the
other hand, the ground is not opened out as it would be by a shaft or drift, and the
sample furnished is but small
3
.


45

The Calyx drill works in the same manner as the diamond drill, but the
annular groove is
cut by steel teeth instead of diamonds.


COMMENTARY TO THE

TEXT

1) the handle has to be lengthened after the fashion of the we
ll
-
known
chimney
-
sweep‱s brush


рукоять

нужно

удлинить

подобно

щетке

для

чистки

дымоходов

2) and fully ten times as quick


и

в

1
0
раз

быстрее

3) and the sample furnished is but small


и

получается

только

небольшой

образец

/
проба
/


(2) B
ORING BY PERCUSSION WITH RODS

The rods are made of iron.

An ordinary boring plant consists of the cutting tool, the rods, a suitable
frame
-
work or
derrick for the purpose of conveniently raising and lowering them,
and the necessary driving machinery; in addition, there must be cleaning tools, and
appliances for remedying accidents, lining the boreholes, and obtaining samples of
the rocks traversed.

T
he actual cutting tool is usually a chisel of some kind. For soft rocks the
edge is straight; for hard rocks there are wings to guide the tool and keep the hole
vertical, or even special guides above it.

The lengthening bars or rods are made of iron of squ
are section. The usual
mode of connection is a screw joint, care being taken to have all the bars alike, so
that any two

bars can be screwed together
1
.


COMMENTARY TO THE

TEXT

1) care being taken to have all the bars alike, so that any two bars can be
scre
wed together


нужно

следить
,
чтобы

все

штанги

были

одинаковы
,
так

чтобы

можно

было

соединить

любые


S
EQUENCE OF BEDS

One of the most important discoveries made by geologists, and one which is
moreover of the greater importance for applied geology and mining, is the
disc
overy of the order in the sequence of beds and of the permanent position of the
beds in this sequence.

Beds and strata were formed in accordance with the conditions which
prevailed at the time of their formation at the place where they were deposited.
Thes
e conditions vary with time and locality. Thus in one and the same place beds
of a different composition were deposited one above the other, but they form a
certain order of sequence. In each place we can determine this sequence of beds
and we can then den
ote the individual beds or groups of beds either by figures,
remains) found in them.

Usually we call the beds after the locality in which they are characteristically
develope
d. When we say “Staffordian Beds” we do not wish to imply that all beds

46

in the Stafford area are “Staffordian Beds”. This name is restricted to certain
groups of beds. Other groups can be and are developed at Stafford, and then
Staffordian Beds are also de
veloped elsewhere.

The formation of ore or coal or any mineral takes place in the same way as
that of any other beds and is dependent on the special conditions prevailing at the
time and place where the layer of the mineral or rock was formed. Thus the
occ
urrence of these minerals and rocks in the sequence is bound to a certain
position and occurs only in this position provided that the conditions for its
formation did not repeat themselves at another time, which, however, was often the
case. Then several d
eposits were formed, one above the other, but again these
deposits maintain a definite position in the sequence, and generally they differ
somewhat from each other because the conditions under which they were formed
were not exactly the same.


DIP AND STRI
KE

By far the greater number of deposits is more or less even, tabular bodies.
line of maximum inclination, i.e. by the dip of the deposit, and (2) by a horizontal
line, i.e
. the contour line or strike of the deposit or stratum. The strike is the
position of a horizontal line drawn through the deposit or the line of intersection of
a horizontal plane with the deposit. The dip is determined by the position of the
line of maxim
um inclination. Dip and strike are indicated in maps by the sign of
dip and strike and are given in degrees. Strike is measured clockwise from the
north, and dip from the horizontal plane. Many deposits are of course not regular

of the most varied shapes, more or less irregular. We
always try to substitute for them bodies delimited by regular planes, but planes
which approach as much as possible to their real position and shape.

It is customary to call deposits and coal seams wit
h a dip up to 5˚ flat
-
lying,
seams from 5˚ to 25˚ gently inclined, a dip of 25˚ to 40˚ medium inclined, from 40˚
to 60˚ steeply inclined, and from 60˚ to 90˚ vertical.


W
HAT IMPORTANCE HAVE SHAPE AND POSITION OF A DEPOSIT
?

In a deposit one of the most impo
rtant features which influences all mining
work is the shape of the deposit and its position in the earth‱s crust. It goes without
saying that a deposit will be prospected and investigated differently when it has the
shape of a horizontal stratum or when i
t forms an irregular aggregate in the parent
and therefore the most important feature to be carefully investigated before starting
mining is the shape and position of the depos
it. As shape depends on origin, it is
important in the study of mineral deposits to investigate the manner of their
formation and the course of later changes which occurred in geological times.
Geology, aided today by geophysics and geochemistry, deals wit
h these questions.





47

C
OMPOSITION OF THE DEPOSIT

When exploring a new occurrence of a mineral it is our first task to
ted depend on these factors. A
coal with a heating value of 6,500 calories and a low ash content, which is firm,
does not crumble in transportation and storing, and yields 90% of lumps and only
10%of fines an
1

that a coal whic
h has only 3,000
calories, crumbles into dust after extraction, is inclined to spontaneous combustion
and has a high ash content.

An iron ore mine containing 65% of iron, with or without sulphur and
without phosphorus, and with little quarts, will have qui
te another value than a
mine with iron ore which contains only 35% of iron in addition to an admixture of
sulphur and phosphorus and which is high in quartz.

Similar considerations operate with regard to all ores and minerals. In all of
is not too low for mining, in which case the ore would be uneconomic to work.
What is not payable in one place and in one mine may yield considerable profit
elsewhere under different conditio
ns. Cost of production depends on the quality or
the rocks, the cost of labour, of energy, of extraction, of the necessary installations
and materials. The cost of transportation is also of decisive importance.

However, not only is the percentage of the mi
neral content in the deposit
decisive, but also the presence of substances which may have a favourable or an
general, on use,

o called desirable
and undesirable
substances.


COMMENTARY TO THE
TEXT

1)
to

fetch

a

high

price



продавать

за

высокую

цену


T
HICKNESS OF A DEPOSIT

A further important task is the investigation of the thickness of the deposit,
i.e. the perpendicular distance between the roof

and the floor or simply its strength.
The payability depends to a considerable extent on the thickness. When the
thickness as below a certain limit, the deposit is not payable, although much
depends, of course, on the price of mineral mined. Thus coal sea
ms, even if good
in quality and in a good position, cannot be mined profitably when their thickness
is less than 1.5 ft. For deposits of iron ores 2 ft. to 3 ft. are given as the limit
according to local conditions and the quality of the ore: for pyrite, a
bout 2 ft.
Deposits of cheap substances, such as limestone, glass, sand, etc., have to be very
thick to be payable. On the other hand, veins of valuable ores such as auriferous
ores, uranium ores, cassiterite, argentiferous ores, and mercury ores, can be q
uite
Thickness is also the most important element determining the reserves of a mineral
and therefore the quantity of the output. Thus a deposit 10 m thick and of one
squar

48

whereas a deposit of the same area, but only 0.5 m thick, contains only 500,000
a greater output tha
n with small reserves.

dependent on the thickness of the deposit as we shall see later. Deposits of similar
nature, content and dip are worked differently when 60 ft. or when 1 ft. thick.


S
IZE OF A DEPOSIT
: M
INERAL RESERVES

To judge the possibilities of exploitation and to evaluate a deposit it is
the reserves of the mineral, and thus also the value of the

deposit, and the scale and

the daily output is
30 truckloads of 20 tons each, i.e. 1,000 tons per day, and if the year has 300
working days, the annual output is 300,000 tons, and the coal reserve will last for
ten years.


I
NTERCALATIONS

Very many sedimentary deposits, especially c
oal seams, are not pure, as the
mineral is interstratified with thin layers of barren material.

seam and its mineral reserve, we have to take these intercalations into account and
subtract them from the total thickness or from the total quantity.

Intercalations, of course, make working more expensive, as we have to
extract them together with the mineral. On the other hand they often supply us with
the necessary waste to fill in work
ed
-
out areas or, when they are soft, a suitable
place to make a cut. Thus they may facilitate extraction.


R
OOF AND FLOOR
: O
VERLYING AND UNDERLYING ROCKS

It is not only important to study the mineral deposit itself. To judge the
od of extraction, and for the exploration of the deposit
it is also very important to know the overlying and underlying strata. The beds
situated above a deposit are called the overlying beds, the rocks situated under a
deposit are the underlying beds. We
use the terms hanging wall and footwall in
connection with faults, levels and drifts, veins, and, in general, in connection with
any place in a mine. The beds lying directly above the mining operations are called
the roof, and the beds directly below them
the floor.

It is certainly of great importance whether the roof is massive, firm, crumbly
rocks
, especially quicksand, i.e. sands saturated with water. They are also
dangerous in the floor. The permeability of the overlying rocks is also of great
importance. Floors will swell in contact, with air and especially with water, and
thus warp the mine rai
lways laid down on them, making working more difficult.


49

The mode of exploitation, the rate of progress and the costs of sinking shafts
and drifting are, of course, dependent to a large extent on the nature of the rocks
through which they are cut, as goes
without saying. The manner of support
depends on the nature of the rocks into which the shaft is sunk or the level or drift
cut.


DEVELOPMENT, SHAFT SINKING AND DRIFTING

1. General Principles of Development

Development has for its fundamental purpose the d
elineation of the ore body
and its preparation for working. From the development workings, the shape,
position, approximate quantity, approximate average value and the physical
characteristics of the ore and enclosing wall rocks are determined. Variations
in the
employed in its treatment can also be determined.

Certain types of ore deposits such as flat bodies of iron ore, lenses and sheets
of lead and zinc and the porphyry copper

deposits admit of preliminary
deposits such as coal, salt, gypsum and the like can be as satisf
actorily developed
developed by boring, and underground workings are the best. In all cases a
preliminar
y geological study is essential, and in most cases will conclusively

Development workings consisting of shafts, drifts, crosscuts, raises, etc.,
are
generally driven in ore, and where this is the case, the development is called
“productive development”. More or less work is however, driven in the country
rock and to this the term “dead work” is applied. From economic considerations
the minimum amou
nt of this kind of work should be done. Development workings
cost more per unit excavated than stoping and for this reason development should
be planned to make accessible the maximum quantity of ore from minimum
volume of development workings. W
h
ere the l
considerable saving in initial capital results.


2. Development Workings

The principal working opening of a mine may be an edit, entry slope, incline
or a vertical shaft. Good mining practice requires the construction and mainten
ance
of at least one other opening which may serve for ventilation and as an emergency
by topographic conditions and the position and general character of the deposit.

In the

case of a narrow vein dipping at a steep angle and a surface
vertical, an incline in the foot wall or an incline in the plane of the vein. The
vertical shaft gives the gre
atest vertical depth for the least footage, but requires the

50

driving of long crosscuts to the vein at points above and below the intersection of
shaft and vein. The principal objections to the vertical shaft are its position in the
hanging wall which is of
ten unstable, the long crosscuts and the difficulty of
maintenance at the intersection at the vein and shaft. The necessity of locating the
shaft mouth at a site suitable for the surface plant and for convenient access often
overbalances the above mentione
d conditions.


UNDERGROUND MINING

1. General

operations involved in excavation, support and the handling of ore and waste.
received names
somewha
t different signification than in other mining districts. In general it is
-
-
pit or open
-
-
Placer
-

T
again generally classified as those using open stopes, timbered stopes, filled stopes
and shrinkage s

particular ore body, for there are so man
y variations occurring in nature. Amongst
mentioned shape, size, dip and regularity of ore body; physical and mineralogical
character of ore; value of ore; character of wall rocks and
overlying surface, and
availability character and coat of timber and material for filling. The future
working of the deposit at depth is another consideration which must not be
in the
upper portions of the deposit may very greatly hinder the deep mining operations.

attitude of the ore body and the strength of its ore and wall rocks. From those a
choice may be

economic and local conditions. But it should be kept in mind that the mining
compromise between conflicting factors
.


2.

mineral which occurs as a bedded deposit, it is used principally for mining coal.
The description which follows applies therefore particularly t
o coal deposits.


51

Coal seams ranging from 4 to 12 ft. thick and from 0˚to 30˚ dip and at depth
excavated, starting from a side or butt
-
entry. This may be driven at right angles to
the e
ntry or inclined, at any angle from a right angle to 45˚. A neighbouring room
is taken off separated by a rib or pillar. As the rooms are extended short drifts of
break
-
throughs are driven through the ribs for the purpose of ventilation. Other
rooms are st
arted in sequence. The rooms are 250 to 300 ft. long and extend up to a
pillar which separates them from the next side entry. A track is laid in the center of
each room. The coal is loaded into cars by shoveling. As soon as a number of
rooms on one entry h
the rooms, beginning on the rib between rooms 1 and 2. This is worked back
toward the entry and as soon as it is well advanced the next rib is started and so on.

o start a drift through the rib leaving a
protecting pillar on the end. The drift is timbered by props and head boards. The
protecting pillar is then attacked and removed in slices parallel with the drift.
Temporary props are put in. When as much of the pr
otecting pillar as can be
over the original room and the portion mined out in the rib. Rib drawing can be
started at any point in the mine providing the work is started at the end
s of the
is roomed out to the boundaries and the
s takes place:
in

the other, rib drawing is begun almost as soon as two or three rooms have been
In determining the

width of room and pillar, two tendencies of practice are to be
noted. In the one the room is made as wide and the rib as narrow as possible. The
primary object of this is to secure as much coal as possible on the first working,
even sacrificing the coal l
eft in the ribs. This policy makes the drawing of the ri
b
s
and creep and crush may cause the mine to be lost. This practice is to be
condemned. The other is to leave the rib
s of ample width and to secure a moderate
amount of coal only in the first working. The remaining coal may be won on the
second working or rib drawing.

mine is worked as a comple
te unit, pillars only being used to protect the main and
side entries. In the second the mine is divided into large panels and each panel is
best practice while the former i
s only of use in small mines. The primary reason for
panel working is the prevention of squeezes and the localization of accidents,
principally explosions.

With a steep dip the ro
om is driven at an angle in order to reduce the grade. Where
the dip exceeds 6 or 8 deg., the rooms are usually driven up it and the care drawn
up to the working face by gravity trams, two tracks being used, the loaded car

52

hauling up the empty one. In some

mines the room direction with reference to the
cleat has an important influence upon the production of the maximum amount of
lump coal.


SCRAPING

Within the last few years scrapers of various designs have been successfully
ines. Scraping is a very simple mechanical
operation. The necessaries are: a scraper of design appropriate to the conditions, a
portable engine, a power line (air or electricity) and a mill hole, chute or hopper to
load into, or, as an alternative, a scrap
ing platform so high that mineral can be
scraped directly into the car. As a rule a double
-
drum engine is used with main and
tail rope haul, the head sheave for the return of the tail rope being suspended over
the muck pile.

The two main types of scrapers
are hoe type and box type scrapers, the light
slip scraper being less commonly used. Hoe and box type scrapers have all kinds of
variations in their design, these dependent upon local conditions. In fact many
scrapers are designed for particular mines and
cannot work successfully if
transferred to another mine, unless the conditions are exactly the s
ame; which is
rarely the case
1
.

The motive power for scrapers is usually a single or double
-
drum hoist of
portable or semi
-
portable type. As mentioned before, d
ouble
-
drum hoists are in
common use, the rate of h.p. ranging from 5 to 35 h.p. depending upon the tonnage
to be scraped and the type of scraper to be used.

In designing a scraper three conditions primarily affect the selection of size
and type of scraper
: the structure and position of the ore body as affecting the
unit operation, and the texture and other physical conditions of the broken ore.
factors must be taken into account. These are,
weight, angle of cutting edge, direction of the line of pull, and stability. The
scraper must be heavy enough to stand the strain of ope
ration, so that it is able to
di
g in easily and to take its load quickly,

-
sized
operation to be handled at the face by one man. The effective digging weight of the
lighter scrapers is increased by the weight of the miner, who rides the scraper while
it is taking its load.


COMMENTERY TO THE TEXT

1) wh
ich is rarely the case


что

редко

имеет

место


TIMBERING

Timber is the commonest and cheapest material for mine support, short life
being its objectionable feature. To eliminate this objection chemical treatment has
been introduced and many engineers advocate it.

The simplest tim
ber construction consists of a cap supported by vertical
prevent small pieces of rock from falling into the mine. The section of the set is

53


mines. Sills are used where an inse
cure
foundation gives trouble
1
.

They are placed either across the working or
placed at a maximum distance apart, the spacing problem bei
ng wholly dependent
upon the pressure condition.

the side walls are also used.

Timber cribs are constructed by laying two square or round timber pieces on
the ground at a conv
enient distance apart and placing two other timbers across the
ends of the first two. This is repeated until the desired height is reached. The cribs
may be constructed rectangular or triangular in section.

The square set is composed of a cap, a girt, and
so as to form a solid 90˚ angle. They are framed at the intersections so as to form a
the intersections so as to form a compressed joint and join by

three similar
framework composed of vertical and horizontal members at right angles is the
whi
ch is temporarily blocked and wedged fast.

Braces or sprags are required in almost all kinds of timbering in order to
provide against side thrusts and to steady important members until the weight
holds them in place.

Wedges are used in all timbering operat
ions principally to hold the prop, cap
or other members firmly until ground pressure develops sufficiently to hold the
timber in place. For fitting in irregularities between the timber and the wall rock
they are of great use.


COMMENTARY TO THE TEXT

1) giv
es trouble


вызывает

опасения


MATERIALS USED IN SUPPORT OF MINE WORKINGS

Steel, brick, stone, concrete and cast iron are used either alone or in
combination for the construction of mine supports. From a structural standpoint
steel is an ideal material. Its cost and t
he greater amount or difficulty and skill
required in its use are objections. It is also subject to corrosion and where used in
the presence of water and particularly of acid water, must be painted with suitable
protective paints.

Where permanency is the m
ost important consideration, masonry, either
than other forms of masonry for mine support, and particularly where the structural
th.

The simplest structure of steel and masonry combination is a brick wall on
either side of the drift, and steel H
-

or I
-
beams across. The lagging rests in the steel
-

beams.


54

For st
eel support steel rails, H
-
beams, I
-
constructed entirely of steel and used to support lagging are employed in
permanent openings. They have the objection of greater difficulty in cutting when
variable length is required f
or the “posts”. The set can be designed along the lines
of the timber set or may consist of curved and arched members.

In masonry support brick, dry walling and concrete are the materials most
used. The section is necessarily one in which there is absence

of tensile strength.
For this reason, semi
-
circular, elliptical, oval and circular section are used. The
inelastic nature of masonry requires that the structure be built strong enough to
carry the loads, or else compressible material such as timber must b
e interposed

Reinforced concrete is coming into considerable use and where permanence
is desired is one of the most satisfactory materials. Like masonry, sections have to
be design
ed which are reasonably tree from tensile stress. The sections used are of
the same general nature as those used in masonry construction.


PUMPING

is pumping. The system consists of

a sump, the pump, the prime mover, the suction
pipe and the column pipe. The accessories are steam or compressed air pipes,
electrical power conduits, valves, switches, indicators, etc. the separate pumping
units may be distributed in different parts of a

mine, but are usually concentrated at
the most important or deepest working shafts. In shallow mines the installation can
bring the water to the surface in one lift, but in deeper mines several units in
tandem may be required to lift the water. Where ther
e are a number of levels in a
mine the water from each level may be conducted to a sump on that level on which
a station pump is placed.

In shaft sinking temporary pumps are used and these lift from the shaft sump
to the nearest station pump. To collect th
e water trickling down the shaft, water
rings are place in the shaft below the points of inflow and the water transferred by
a pipe to the nearest sump. Station pumps are permanent installations. The sump is
constructed in the shaft bottom or at a point co
nveniently near the shaft. It is
excavated below the floor of the level or may consist of a wooden tank placed
below the pump station floor. In the latter case the water supplied by the level must
be conducted to a separate sump and pumped into the tank, o
r conducted down the
shaft in pipes to the shaft sump and pumped into the tank of the next station pump
level, and to receive in it all the drainage from the level and the wo
rkings below
the next station pump above.

Sump capacity is varied to suit the mine conditions. Large sump capacity at
the lowest unit is desirable, since, in the event of the failure to the power, the
flooding of the lowest level can be avoided. At interme
diate pumping stations the
sump should be large enough to insure the steady operation of the pump and to
receive the flow from the level for a short time. Pumps used for mine drainage may

55

be of plunger or centrifugal type. The choice is dependent on the wa
ter head and
the shaft depth.


VENTILATION

ventilation. The prevalency of open stopes and connecting workings is very
favorable for natural ventilation. Where the air is bad, raises are dr
iven or small
fans and pipes are used. The increasing depth and extent of large mines have made
power ventilation necessary in many cases. At first, coal mining practice was
followed an large fans were connected to the upcast shaft. This practice is still
followed. The small, large capacity, high
-
speed fan has made it possible to place
the fan underground. This is a good arrangement. The fan can be so placed as to
divide the mine into two parts, one of which is characterized by the downward
movement and the

other by the upward movement of the air. The fan draws air
from one side and forces it through the other side of the upcast. With this
arrangement both downcast and upcast shafts are open.

systematically planned before opening up the mine. Provision is made for upcast
and downcast shafts and air ways. The quantity of air for the mine is determined by
the probable maximum daily output. With this factor, the permissible velocities
and the leng
ths of the air
-
ways and the cross
-
section of main and side entries are
and type of fan required.


UNDERGROUND HAULAGE

1. General


the stopes requires at least two
transfers. The ore is shoveled or scraped into chutes, or where the horizontal
distance in the stope is large it is shoveled into a small mine car and trammed to
the chutes. The chute is vertical or inclined at an angle su
fficient to deliver the ore
to a lower point, from which is drawn off and loaded into cars. The cars are
trammed or hauled along the level to the shaft and are there dumped into a skip
-
loading cage and hoisted to the surface. Where main
-
level haulage is us
ed and a
deposit of considerable vertical range is worked the ore may be gathered by chutes
connecting several levels. The advantage of main
-
level haulage consists in the
concentration of hoisting operations upon one level instead of number.

Each working
level requires its equipment of track, cars and chutes. If power
haulage is used upon the levels each level must be equipped with the necessary
appliances.

working level and the mine car
s can be brought to the face and loaded. The
the cars must be taken from the faces, delivered to the shaft bottom, loaded upon
the cages and hoisted. The tonnages handled are us
mine tonnages and range from 500 to 5000 tons per day.


56

Haulage in coal mines is divided into “gathering service”, which is the
removal of the cars from the working faces, and main haulage. In the main haulage
the trains of car
s which are made up at the partings are hauled either directly to the
tipple or to the shaft bottom.

such
that it is now considered as the best form of mine haulage. Two types of
electric locomotives can be applied.

The trolley type locomotive requires a track system that is bonded, a trolley
wire suspended directly over or at one side above the track, a moto
r
-
to supply continuous current, conducting wires and switch and instrument board.
The voltage range from 250 to 500 volts. This system cannot be applied in small
crooked drifts and gaseous coal mines. The system is economical in power
consump
tion and is readily operated.

The electric storage battery locomotive does not require a bonded track and
can be operated wherever there is a track.

The system is very elastic in that the locomotive can be operated throughout
the mine by transferring it f
rom level to level. The trolley wire is avoided. The
charging plant consists of a motor
-
connecting leads. With properly protected electrical equipment it can be used in
gaseous coal mines. The storage battery
locomotive is very suitable for small
tonnages and short hauls. For long distances and large tonnages the trolley type
locomotive is preferable.


SURFACE ARRANGEMENT

Surface edifices at the mines ordinarily consist of a headframe, change house
and office,
shop building, hoist and compressor buildings. The location of these
buildings mostly depends on the size of the mine, climatic and ground conditions.

The relative position of the headframe and hoist depend upon the type of
hoist used, and indirectly upon
the dimensions of the drum. The angle which the
hoisting rope makes with the head sheave plane is called the fleet angle and is
limited to a maximum of 2%. The hoist must therefore be placed far enough away
from shaft collar to avoid a larger angle. In Ger
installed in the head frame, but this depends upon the conditions existing at the
individual mine.

Headframes are constructed of steel or timber, the former being used on long
lived mines where the first cost favors this materi
al. The height of the head frame
ranges from 40 to 185 ft. Deep shafts in which rapid hoisting is to be done require
ample vertical height. Where moderate speed hoisting is used the height limitation


HOISTING

tilting deck hoisting and skip hoisting. Cage hoisting is used in small mines where
the equipment cost must be kept at a minimum. It is used in many coal mines

57

r large capacity. In all cases where it is used the cars on the deck
of the cage are removed at the landing point. A large amount of labor is necessarily
required. The tilting deck cage is only used in coal mining practice. It obviates the
necessity of rem
oving the cars from the deck of the surface. End
-
door cars must be
used. At the unloading point the deck of the cage is automatically tilted, the door of
the car raised, and the contents of the car discharged into a chute. The capacity of a
hoisting plant
deck can be used. For mines of moderate depth this limitation is not serious, but for
mines of considerable depth multi
-
deck cages and cage hoisting are necessary, in
order to obtain s
ufficient capacity.

deep workings. The skips are loaded from chutes and automatically discharged at
ha
ndling, but is seldom used in coal mining practice on account of the breakage
and dust produced by the double handling of the coal.

There are four systems of hoisting in use. Unbalanced or single
-
rope hoisting
is characteristic of small installations such
as are used in mines of limited output,
prospects, auxiliary hoisting and mines in process of development. Partially
balanced or two
-
rope hoisting is used to a greater extent than any other system. It
r metal mines and for
shallow and deep working. Balanced or two
-
rope hoisting with tail rope has the
important mechanical advantage of a counter
-
balanced system throughout the
hoist. Overbalanced hoisting is used only for single
-
cage or skip hoisting, wher
e
the capacity is small and economy demands the minimum consumption of power.

At present the tendency is to equip all hoists with electric drive as it has been
shown to be more efficient than steam or air
-
hoists.

The electrical driven hoist falls into two
types


the direct
-
current motor
-
interposed between the motor and the drum shaft. The second type admits the use
of th
e alternating current motor.


58

АННО
ТАЦИЯ НАУЧНОЙ СТАТЬИ

A
BSTRACT

Аннотацией называется краткое и вместе с тем исчерпывающее
изложение содержания научной статьи, помещаемое непосредственно после
заглавия и понятное возможно более широкому кругу читателей. Как
правило, аннотация не содерж
ит каких
-
либо формул или цифровых данных,
имеет объем, не превышающий 1200
-
1600 печатных знаков, и является
законченной логической единицей, дающей читателю возможность
обоснованно решить, следует ему читать данную научную статью или нет.
По сравнению с ос
тальным текстом научной статьи аннотация набирается
более мелким жирным шрифтом и по объему вводимой информации
занимает промежуточное положение между заглавием
и введением
.


В аннотации помещаются сведения об общем направлении, задачах и
целях исследовани
я, приводится более конкретное описание тематики работ,
выполненных данным автором, поясняется метод исследования, кратко
излагаются полученные теоретические и экспериментальные результаты и
формулируются общие выводы, которые можно сделать на основании эт
их
результатов. По своему содержанию и методам исследования аннотации
научных статей подразделяются на три основных типа:


(а)

Аннотации научных статей, излагающих результаты оригинальных
теоретических и (или) экспериментальных исследований, выполненных
ав
торами;


(б)

Аннотации обобщающих научных статей, посвященных
распространению полученных результатов на другие области и занимающих
промежуточное положение между оригинальными исследованиями и
обзорами литературы;


(в)

Аннотации обзорных научных статей.

Дл
я аннотаций оригинальных научных статей, содержащих результаты
научных исследований, выполненных непосредственно автором, характерны
следующие типовые структурные формы и обороты:


1
.

... are presented



Приводятся результаты
теоретического (экспериментального) исследования...


2.
It

is

shown

that

...


Показано
,
что
...


3
.
A theoretical (experimental) depend
ence of... vs... is formulated


Формулируется теоретическая

(полученная экспериментально) завис
имость...
от...


4.
Recomm
endations

for

...
are

presented



Приводятся

рекомендации

по
...


5.
Conclusions

regarding

...
are

made

(
arrived

а
t
)


Делаются

выводы

о

том
,
что
...


Аннотации обобщающих научных статей по своим лексико
-
стилистическим особенностям
занимают промежуточное положение между
аннотациями оригинальных и обзорных научных статей и, помимо
характерных для этих двух категорий типовых структурных форм, могут
также содержать специфические для данной категории типовые структурные
формы, такие как:


59


1.
In this general paper th
e

role

of

...
in

...
is

discussed



B
данной

обобщающей

научной

статье

рассматривается

роль
...
в
...


2.
The

extension

of
...
and

possibility

of

its

practical

app
lication

to

...
are

considered



Рассматриваются

распространение

..
.
на

...
и

возможность

его

практического

приложения

к
...


3.
A generalized vers
ion of

... for ... is introduced


Вводится

обобщенный

вариант
...
для
...


4.
Subject matter related to ...
as well as to ... is considered


Обсуждаются

вопросы
,
относящиеся

как

к

...,
так

и

к
...


Для аннотаций обзорных научных статей, содержащих обзор (или
сопоставительный анализ) результатов, полуденных другими
исследователями, характерны следующие типовые структурные формы и
обороты:


1.
A

review

of

...
essentia
l

for

...
is

pr
esented



Приводится

обзор
...,
представляющих

интерес

для

...


2.
Present

status

and

theoretical

(
experimental
,
test
)
results

of

...
are

summarized



Рассматривается

современное

состояние

и

приводятся
результаты теоретических

исследований (экспериментально
й проверки,
натурных испытаний)...


3
.
The current resear
ch programs for... are outlined


Приводится обзор
проводимых в настоящее время исследований по...


4.
The

factors

(
)
considered

include

...


Рассмотрено

влияние

таких

факторов

(
параметров
),
как
...


5.
for

...


Особое

внимание

уделяется

...
методам

(
способам

решения
),
применяемым
...
для
...


6.
A

bibliography

of

...
references

is

included



Библиография

включает
...
наименований
.


Внешними признаками оригинальной научной статьи могут являться:
наличие снабженного сквозной нумерацией развитого математического
аппарата; большой объем иллюстративно
-
графических материалов;
сравнительно небольшая библиография, в состав кот
орой входят
предыдущие публикации автора и объем которой не превышaer 8
-
10
наименований. Авторами оригинальных научных статей обычно
оказываются работники низших и средних иерархических уровней (Design
Engineer, Research Engineer, Analytical Engineer, Stru
ctural Engineer, System
Engineer, Member of the Technical Staff).


Внешними признаками обобщающей научной статьи являются:
отсутствие сквозной нумерации у имеющегося математического аппарата,
который обычно имеет иллюстративный характер; большой объем
текс
тового и сравнительно небольшой объем иллюстративно
-
графического
материала; развитая библиография, включающая до 25
-
30 наименований, в
том числе одну
-

две работы автора. Авторами обобщающих научных статей
обычно являются работники среднего иерархического
уровня (Senior

60

Engineer, Lead Engineer, Technical Coordinator, Group Leader, Company Officer,
Technical Manager, Research Manager).


Внешними признаками обзорной научной статьи являются: отсутствие
раздела принятых обозначений, отсутствие математического а
ппарата;
большой объем текстового и сравнительно небольшой объем иллюстративно
-
графического материала, очень развитая библиография, включающая до 150
-
200 наименований. Авторами обзорных научных статей большей частью
являются руководители среднего и высшего

иерархических уровней (Chief
Engineer, Chief Scientist, Project Manager, Program Manager, Technical Director,
Research Director, Deputy Director, Associate Director, Director
-
General).


Информационные службы большинства научных обществ и
исследовательских

организаций США (таких, как AIAA, IEEE, ACM, SAE,
AGARD, NASA, и др.) с установленной периодичностью публикуют
сборники аннотаций и реферативных обзоров научных статей и препринтов
(как, например, International Aerospace Abstracts, издаваемые Technical
In
formation Service, AIAA), а также каталоги программно
-
матёматического
обеспечения фундаментальных и прикладных научно
-
исследовательских
работ (такие, как The Software Catalog/Science and Engineering, или более
оперативное Menu/The International Software Da
tabase, Издаваемые через
специализированное издательство Usevier, New York, USA).


Зарубежный пользователь, ознакомивши
сь с аннотациями научных
статей
, публикуемых в такого рода переодических изданиях, заказывает и
получает нужные ему статьи и программы ли
бо в виде опера
тивных
распечаток на бумажных но
сителях (в этом случае информация поступает по
телефонной линии на знаковый или факсимильный печатающий аппарат
пользователя), либо в виде записей на магнитных носителях устройства
памяти персонального компьют
ера, либо, пользуясь услугами традиционной
почты, в виде записанных магнитных или лазерных дисков.


61

АНГЛО
-
РУССКИЙ ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ

А

access



доступ, подход;
-

доступный

adit



штольня, галерея

advance



продвигать (ся),
подвигать очистной забой;



проходка, подвигание забоя,
опережение, передовой забой

advancing



подвигание,
наращивание, удлинение;


прямой
ход от ствола к границе

advancing

mining



выемка
прямым ходом, наступающая выемка
(работа от с
твола к границам
шахтного поля)

air

duct



ве
нтиляционная
труба, воздухопровод

airway



вентиляционная
выработка, вытяжная выработка,
выработка для исходящей
вентиляционной струи,
вентиляционный ходок;


вентиляционный

allotment



горн
ый отвод,
шахтное поле, участок

alluvial



аллювиальный,
наносный

ambiguous



двусмысленный,
сомнительный; неопределенный,
неясный; допускающий дв
оякое
толкование; неоднозначный

auxiliary

crosscut



промежуточный квершлаг

auxiliary

shaft



вспомогательный ствол


В

back



висячий бок; кровля,
задняя стенка;
-

поддерживать

bank



приемная площадка
(нулевая верхняя), пачка пласта

banking

arrangement



приемная
площадка

blast



взрыв, взрывание
шпура; взрывать

blasting



взрывание шпура
(скважины), взрыв, взрывные
работы;
-

взрывной

blind

shaft



слепой ствол,
гезенк

block

ca
ving



система
разработки с массовым обрушением,
блоковое обрушение, этажное
обрушение

borehole



скважина, шпур

boulder



валун

branch off


отделяться;
отходить от главного направления

breadth



ширина

break

(
broke
,
broken
)


отбивать, ломать, обрушать
(
кровлю);


обрушение, посадка
кровли, разлом, трещина

breakdown



поломка
механизма, машины, авария

breakthrough



сбойка между
камерами, просек, разрезная печь,
выработка малого сечения

breast



грудь забоя, забой,
площадь забоя, камера

brine



соляной ра
створ, рассол
(из буровой скважины)


C

cable



кабель, канат;
power

cable



силовой кабель

cage



клеть, платформа для
вагонетки;


загрузить клеть

cage

compartment



клетьевое
отделение

cap



капсюль
-
детонатор,
переклад, порода кровли пласта,
поперечная р
аспорка станковой
крепи

cave



обрушать, обрушаться,
обрушать кровлю


62

caving



выработанное
пространство, обрушение

cavity



полость, впадина,
трещина в породе

chamber



камера, печь, просек

char



древесный уголь;


обу
гливать, коксовать

churn

drill



кана
тное или
ударное бурение

chute



спуск, желоб, скат,
углеспускная выработка, спуск для
руды

circuit



провод (тока), цикл,
околоствольная выработка

circular

ventilation



центральное проветривание

clearance



сечение в свету
(выработки), габарит, расстояни
е в
свету, зазор

cleat



кливаж, слоистость

combustion



горение, сгорание

companion drive


парная

выработка

compressed air


сжатый

воздух

compressed air drill


пневматический

перфоратор

conflagration


возгорание
,
пожар

contamination



загрязнение
,
пор
ча
,
заражение

contrivance



план
,
изобретение
,
приспособление

crew



бригада
,
артель

рабочих

cross
-
cut



квершлаг
,
орт
,
сбойка

cross

section

clear



поперечное

сечение

в

свету

cut

(
cut
)


рубить, подрубать,
резать;


вруб, разрез, заходка,
высечка, выемка

cut

and

fill



разработка с
закладкой

cut

off



обрезать, прерывать;
срез, отсечка, осечка (шнура)

D

development


развитие,
улучшение, внедрение,
подготовительные работы;


подготовительный

development end


забой
подготовительной выработки

development

w
orking



подготовительная выработка

digging


разработка
(открытая), рытье, земляные работы,
копание

dilute



разбавлять,
растворять,
разубоживать (руду)

dip


падение, уклон, откос;


падать

disturbance


нарушение,
дислокация

down
-
cast


выработка,
подаю
щая воздух;


нисходящий

down
-
cast

shaft



ствол,
подающий воздух в шахту

dredge


драга

dressing


обогащение, мойка,
заправка, заточка

drift


штрек, выработка

drifting


проходка (выработок)

drive (drove, driven)


проходить, двигать, везти, приводить
в

движение;


проходка, выработка,
привод, передача, штрек

drive

a

heading



проходить
выработку (штрек)


E

enduring



противос
тоящий
выветриванию, устойчивый

eruptive


изверженный,
вулканический, эруптивный

excavation


выемка, очистная
выемка, горная выр
аботка,
экскавация, разрез, карьер

exhaust


отработанный,
выхлопной;


выхлоп;


выкачивать,
вытягивать


63

explore


исследовать,
разведывать

exploration


разведка,
исследование (месторождения)

exploratory

shaft



разведочный
ствол

explosive


взрывчатый;


взрывчатое вещество


F

face


забой, лава, грудь забоя

facilitate


облегчать;
содействовать; способствовать;
помогать, продвигать

fault


сброс, сдвиг, разрыв,
трещина, нарушение

filled

stope



забой с закла
дкой
выработанного пространства

filling


навал
ка, закладка,
закладочный материал, погрузочный
пункт (в шахте)

fissure


излом, трещина (в
породе, угле);


трескаться

flank
-

бок, сторона

flat

back

cut

and

fill




потолкоуступная

система

разработки

flat

back




метод
разработки горизо
нтальным
потолкоуступным забоем
,
параллельным основному штреку

flat

back

stope



горизонтальный забой,
потолкоуступный забой,
параллельный основному штреку и
продвигающийся
по восстанию

floor


почва выработки,
подошва пласта, горизонт, настил;


настилать

fold


складка, сгиб;
-

изгибать,
загнуть

folding


образование складок;


складной, створчатый, откидной

foot
wal
l


подошва выработки,
лежачий
бок

force


сила, нагнетание;


заставлять, принуждать, ускорять

f
ourfold


четырёхкратный
,

четырежды; вчетверо

free face


обнаженная
поверхность забоя, свободная
плоскость забоя


G

gallery


штрек, горизонтальная
выработка, штольня

gangway


основной штрек,
штрек, главный откаточный штрек,
лестничное отделение

gradient


уклон, градиент

gravity


сила тяжести; by

gravity самотеком, самоходом

gravity incline


бремсберг
(наклонная выработка для спуска
груза с помощью механического
устройства)

gravity

plane



бремсберг

grinding


измельчение, мелкое
дробление, истирание

ground


земля, порода,
подошва выработки

grou
p levels


групповые
выработки


Н

hammerpick


отбойный
молоток

handling



подача, перегрузка,
доставк
а, перемещение,
транспортировка

hanging

wall



висячий

бок
,
кровля

haul


доставлять, откатывать,
тянут
ь, тащить;


откатка,
подъемник

haulage


откатка,
канатная
тяга, транспорт

haulageway


откаточный путь


64

head


штрек, выработка по
углю, гидростатический напор,
напор воды, верх

hoist


подъем, подъемная
машина, лебедка;


поднимать,
натянуть

hoisting shaft


главный
шахтный ствол, подъемный ствол


I

incl
ine


уклон, бремсберг,
наклонный ствол, скат, спуск,
наклонная выработка (для подъема
груза на вышележащий горизонт)

inclined shaft


наклонный
ствол


К

kerf


зарубка, выемка, вруб;


зарубать, подрубать


L

lens


линза;


линзообразный,
чечевицеобразный

level


горизонт, этаж,
горизонтальная выработка;


выравнивать;


горизонтальный

longwall


выемка лавами,
длинный сплошной забой

loose


очищать (забой),
разрыхлять; а сыпучий, рыхлый

loosening


отбойка,
разрыхление,
ослабление


М

manway


ходовое отде
ление
ствола, людской ходок, лестничное
отделение

mat



на
стил предварительной
крепи, мат

mining


добыча, выемка,
разработка, горное дело;


рудный,
горный

mineral


минерал, руда,
полезное ископаемое;


минеральный

minor



вторичный,
вспомогательный

mout
h


устье выработки,
отверстие


N

necessitate



вызывать
необходимость
.

nomenclature



но
менклатура,
перечень, список
;
терминология


О

obliquely



наклонно, наискось

open cast


открытые горные
работы, карьер, разнос;


открытый

opening


отверстие,
вырабо
тка, шурф, вскрытие

opening up


вскрытие
(подготовка)

opening up works


вскрытие,
горнокапитальные работы

open cut


открытые работы,
карьер

open pit


разрез, карьер,
открытая разработка

open

stope



открытый забой

ore

dressing



обогащение руд

outcrop


выходить на
поверхность, обнажиться



вытяжной ствол,
запасный выход

overbreaking


подрывка
кровли

overburden


вскрыша; наносы,
перекрывающие породы

overhand


потол
коуступный



потолкоуступная выемка

overlying rock


налегающая
горная порода, вышележащая порода



65

Р

pack filling


закладка пустой
породой

panel


панель, прямоугольный
целик или столб угля, выемочное
поле

parting


разделение прослоек,
трещиноватость

pillar


целик, столб,
предохранительный целик

pocket


глухая выр
аботка,
карман, раскоска

preparatory work


подготовительные работы

prospecting


разве
дка, поиски,
разведочн
ые работы


Q

quarry


карьер, открытая
выработка


R

raise


восстающая выработка,
бремсберг;


поднимать, выдавать



отступающая
выемка (работа от
границ шахтного поля к стволу),
выемка обратным ходом

rib


предохранительный
целик, прослоек

rig


каретка, буровой станок,
комппектдля бурения;


устанавливать

rill



диагональный забой

rill

stope



разработка
наклонными слоями с заклад
кой,
диаг
ональная потолкоуступная
выемка

rob



извлекать, вынимать или
подрабатывать предохранительные
целики ил
и столбы; вести очистную
работу

roof


кровля, потолок
выработки;


перекрывать

room


камера;


камерный

S

safety

pillar



охранный

целик

saw


пилить, распиливать

seam


слой, тонкая жила,
пласт

self
-
contained


независимый,
самостоятельный

siding


боковая выработка

sink (sank, sunk)


проходить
(ствол), углублять, опускать,
погружать, оседать

shaft


шахтный
ствол

shaft sinking


углубка или
п
роходка ствола

shear


сдвиг, срез, сдвигающее
или срезывающее усилие;


сделать
вертикальный вруб, зарубить (по
вертикали), сдвинуть

shovel


лопатка, механическая
лопатка, экскаватор, погрузочная
машина;


рыть, копать,
перелопачивать

shrinkage

stope



выемка с
магазинированием

shunt


отводить, ответвлять,
переходить на запасный путь,
маневрировать

skipway


скиповое отделение

slice

drift



слоевая выемка

slough



отваливаться,
обрушаться

sludge



буровая грязь, муть,
шлам

spontaneous combustion


самов
оспламенение, самовозгорание

staple shaft


слепой
ствол

stem
-

тело бура, штанга;


забить шпур

step


уступ, ступень

stope


очищать, вынимать;


очистной забой

stepped

face



уступный забой

stoping


очистная выемка,
очистные работы


66

stopping


перегород
ка,
перемычка, изоляционная
перемычка, глухая перемычка,
остановка

storage

bin



бункер

stowing



закладка; а
закладочный




растяжка, распорка,
приспособление для растягивания;


по
перечный перекладб лежанб опора

subdeposit

level



выработка в
по
дстилающих породах

sublevel



подэтаж,
промежуточный этаж, подэтажный
штрек, промежуточный штрек

sublevel

mining



разработка
под этажами

submerge



погружаться

subside



опускаться, падать,
понижаться, убывать
;

опускаться,
оседать

subsidence



осаждение,
оседание, осадка

subsidiary



вспомогательный

sump


зумф, водосборник

superfluous


излишний,
ненужный, избыточный, чрезмерный

support


крепить,
поддерживать, подпирать; n опора,
стойка, поддержание, крепь


Т

tabular


пластовый (о
месторождении), плоски
й,
табличный

tailing(s)


хвосты
обогатительной фабрики, остаток
после обогащения

tenor



содержание

test

pit



пробный шурф,
разведо
чная скважина, опорная
скважина

thickness


мощность, толщина

timber


крепь, крепежный лес,
лесоматериал;


крепить, закре
плять

top

slicing



слоевое обрушение

transfer station


перегрузочная
станция

transverse


поперечный, косой

trap
-
door


дверь для
регулирования воздуха в шахте

trenching



разведка канавами,
проведение канав, опробирование
кан
авами, бороздовое опробирова
ние

tubular


трубчатый,
цилиндрический


U

undercut


подрубать,
производить нижний вруб;


подрубка

undercutting


зарубка,
подрубка, производство вруба

undercutting machine


машина
для нижней зарубки, врубовая
машина

underhand stoping


почвоуступная вы
емка, подвигание
вниз по падению

underlie (underlay, underlain)


подстилать, залегать ниже;


нижележащий

undermine


подрубать, делать
нижний вруб, подрабатывать

upcast


выработка для
исходящей струи, вентиляционная
выработка;


восходящий,
вентиляционн
ый

upcast shaft


вентиляционный

ствол


V

vein



жи
ла, пласт, пропласток,
прожилок


W

wall

in



крепить

waste


пустая порода,
выработанное пространство,
угольная мелочь, бутовый штрек


67

water bearing


насыщенный
водой

weathering



выветривание

wedging


ра
склинка, клиновая
отбойка, забивная клиновая крепь

win (won)


добывать,
разрабатывать

winze


скат, гезенк, спуск

working


выработка, работа,
разработка;


работающий,
действующий

Y

yield


подаваться, сдавать,
добывать; производить;


податливость, добы
ча, оседание
кровли;


податливый
















СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ


Англо
-
русский геологический словарь
/
под ред.

Д. С. Коржинского
.


М.: Гос. изд
-
во тех.
-
теоретич. лит
-
ры, 1957
.

Англо
-
русский горнотехнический словарь
/
под ред.

Б. М. Вор
обьева
.


М.: Углетехиздат, 1958
.

Панин

И
.
М
.
Основы горного дела
/
И. М. Панин
[
и др.
].



М: Изд
-
во
литературы на ин.яз., 1958.


120 с.

Mining Magazine
.
URL:
http://www.miningmagazine.com
.


68

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ


UNIT

I: WHAT IS MINING?

TEXT 1: MINING

-

-

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-

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-

-

TEXT 2: IMPORTANT TERMS USED IN MINING

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

TEXT 3: THE IMPORTANCE OF GEOLOGY FOR MINING

-

-

-

-

-

-

TEXT 4: THE IMPORTANCE OF

GEOLOGY FOR MINING

(Continued)

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-

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-

-

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-

-


UNIT II: PROSPECTING AND EXPLORATION
:

TEXT 1: PROSPECTING, EXPLORATION AND SAMPLING

-

-

-

-

-

-


UNIT III: OPENING UP OF THE DEPOSIT, ITS
D
EVELOPMENT AND PREPARATION FOR MINING
:

TEXT 1: DIVIDING

THE DEPOSIT INTO SECTION
S

AND
THEIR

SIGNIFICANCE

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

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-

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-

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-

-

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TEXT 2
: CLASSIFICATION OF MINING OPERATIONS

-

-

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-

-

-

-

TEXT 3: PRINC
IPLES IN MAKING OPENING
UP AND
PREPARATORY WORKINGS (DEVELOPMENT WORKINGS)

-

-

-

-

TEXT 4: OPENING UP WORKS
:

1) Vertical Shafts

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2) Incline Shafts in the Deposit

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

-

-

3) Incline Shafts Sunk Outside the Deposit

-

-

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-

-

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-

-

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-

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-

-

-

4) Crosscuts

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5) Auxiliary Crosscuts

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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6) Adits (Tunnels)

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7) S
haft stations and circuits

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

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-

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UNIT IV: DEVELOPMENT
WORK
:

TEXT 1: Main Haulageways: Group Levels, Subdeposit Levels

-

-

-

-

-

-

TEXT 2: Drives

-

-

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-

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-

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-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

TEXT 3: Twin Drives: Companion Drives

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

TEXT 4:

Overbreaking and Underbreaking

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

TEXT 5: Transverse Galleries (Breakthroughs)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-


-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

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-

-

-

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-

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-

-

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-

-

TEXT 7: Suble
vel Drives

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

TEXT 8: Gravity Inclines and Winzes

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

TEXT 9: Raises and Chutes

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

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-

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TEXT 10:
Breakthroughs, or Holings

-

-

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UNIT IV: EXCAVATION
:

TEXT 1: EXCAVATION

-

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TEXT 2: FUNDAMENTAL RULES IN CHOOSING THE MINING
METHODS (General Remarks)

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3

4

5


6



8





10

13


16


19

20

21

21

22

23

25



27

27

28

28

28

28

28

30

30

31



31


33


68

TEXT
3

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TEXT
4
ntinued)

-

-

-

-

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-


TEXT
5

-

-

-

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-

-



ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ДОМАШНЕГО ЧТЕНИЯ

-

-

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АННОТАЦИЯ НАУЧНОЙ СТАТЬИ

-

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-



АНГЛО
-
РУССКИЙ ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ



СПИСОК
ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

35

37

39


42


58


61


67


68


Учебное издание




Светлана Анатольевна Безбородова







ГОРНОЕ ДЕЛО




Учебное пособие

по английскому языку

для студентов
II

курса

горно
-
технологического факультета






Корректура каф
едры иностранных языков и деловой коммуникации









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