Seminar 5. The Adjective. The Adverb.A general outline of the adjective.
Classification of adjectives.
The category of adjectival comparison, elative most constructions, less/least constructions.
Substantivisation of adjectives.
A general outline of the adverb.
Types of adverbs. Modern interpretation of the “to bring up” type of adverbs.
The lexemic subcategorizations of the adverbs ending in “-ly”
TASKS.1. State the classification features of the adjectives and adverbs used in the given sentences.
MODEL: " I found myself weary and yet wakeful, tossing restlessly from side to side..."
"weary" - a qualitative evaluative adjective;
"wakeful" - a qualitative speculative adjective;
"restlessly" - an evaluative qualitative adverb.
1. Rosemary Fell was not exactly beautiful. Pretty? Well, if you took her to pieces... But why be so cruel as to take anyone to pieces? She was young, brilliant, extremely modern, exquisitely dressed, amazingly well-read in the newest of the new books, and her parties were the most delicious mixture of the really important people and... artists – quaint creatures, discoveries of hers, some of them too terrifying for words, but others quite presentable and amusing (Mansfield).
2. "There!" cried Rosemary again, as they reached her beautiful big bedroom with the curtains drawn, the fire leaping on the wonderful lacquer furniture, her gold cushions and the primroses and blue rags (Mansfield).
3. She was helpful, pervasive, honest, hungry, and loyal (Cheever).
4. He was tall and homely, wore horn-rimmed glasses, and spoke in a deep voice (Cheever).
2. Comment on the use of the forms of superlative degree of the adjective and on the use of the words "more" and "most" in the following sentences.
MODEL: "It was a most unpleasant telephone call." This is a case of the elative "most-construction". The morphological form "a most unpleasant" is not a superlative degree of the adjective but an elative form expressing a high degree of the quality in question.
1. She who had been most upset and terrified at the morning's discovery now seemed to regard the whole thing as a personal insult (James).
2. The Fifth Symphony by Beethoven is a most beautiful piece of music.
3. Sure, it's difficult to do about in the wrongest way possible (Wilson).
4. The more we go into the thing, the more complex the matter becomes
1. When Sister Cecilia entered, he rose and gave her his most distinguished bow (Cronin).
2. She was the least experienced of all (Bennett).
3. She is best when she is not trying to show off (Bennett).
1. You're the most complete man I've ever known (Hemingway).
2. As they came closer, John saw that it was the tail-light of an immense automobile, larger and more magnificent than any he had ever seen (Fitzgerald).
3. It was a most unhappy day for me when I discovered how ignorant I am (Saroyan).
3. Give the forms of degrees of comparison and state whether they are form1 in a synthetic, analytical or suppletive way.
a) wet, merry, real, far;
b) kind-hearted, shy, little, friendly;
c) certain, comical, severe, well-off;
d) sophisticated, clumsy, good-looking.
4. Translate the given phrases into English using Adjective + Noun, Noun + Noun combinations where possible, or else prepositions or genitive case (give double variants where possible):
a). каменная стена, Пражская конференция, проблемы воспитания и образования, падение метеорита, музыка Вагнера, музей Рублева, договор о мире, текст договора, обсуждение договора, чайная чашка, чашка чая, чайная, администрация президента, выступление президента, выражение печали, болеутоляющее, снотворное, кулинарная книга, птичий рынок, журнал для подростков, план модернизации завода;
b) солнечный луч, солнечная энергия, солнечная батарея, солнечная система, солнечная улыбка, солнечный год, солнечный зайчик, закат солнца, шляпа от солнца, солнечная сторона, солнечная комната; лунный месяц, лунное затмение, восход луны, лунный свет, лунная поверхность, лунный камень;c) картина, изображающая небо, небоскреб, небесный свод, небесные светила, божественный поэт, небесная красота
e) морской берег, морской флот, морское путешествие, морской офицер, морская война, морской бой, морское училище, морская карта, морская держава, морская миля, морская торговля, морской разбойник, морской котик, морской скат, морская профессия.V. Give the Russian equivalents for the English word combinations:
a) iron rations, iron foundry (ironworks), iron industry, ironware (ironmongery), ferrous metal, ferrous oxide;
b) celestial map, sky-force, celestial food, sky-line, skyway, celestial navigation;
c) sea-boy, sea-water, naval base, "sea dog", Admiralty, Admiralty mile, sea-cock, dog-fish, echinus;
d) sea-hedgehog, starfish, sea-horse, sea-dye, grass-wrack, sea kale, sea-cliff, sea-cow, sea-lane.