Upstream Advanced Unit 8

“Education makes people easy to lead, but difficult to drive; easy to govern but impossible to enslave.”
Henry Peter (Scottish politician)
“Education is a progressive discovery of our own ignorance.”
Will Durant (U.S. historian)
Unit 8 Live and Learn
(the) advent of = the time when sth first begins to be widely used ➔ coming наступление (эпохи, события), прибытие, приход
(the) clergy = the official leaders of religious activities in organized religions духовенство
Abacus = a frame with small balls on thick wires used for counting and calculating счёты
Adverse = not good or favourable враждебный, неблагоприятный, неблаготворный, вредный
Afterthought= sth that you mention or add later because you did not think of it or plan it before запоздалая мысль, запоздалое раздумье
Allegation = a statement that someone has done sth wrong or illegal, but that has not been proved безосновательное обвинение
Apprentice = sb who works for an employer for a fixed period of time in order to learn a particular skill or job подмастерье
Archaic = old and no longer used ➔outdated архаичный, устаревший, устарелый
Articulate = able to talk easily and effectively, esp about difficult things ясный, отчётливый, чётко сформулированный
Assignment = a piece of work that is given to someone as part of their job задание, командировка
Avid = doing sth as much as possible жадный, алчный, заядлый
Barren = land or soil that is barren has no plants growing on it малоплодородный, неплодородный, бесплодный, дающий малый урожай
Bastion = sth that protects a way of life, principle etc that seems likely to change or end completely бастион, оплот, укрепление
Biased = unfairly preferring sth to sth else необъективный, предвзятый, пристрастный
Bigoted = having such strong opinions about a group of people that you are unwilling to listen to anyone else's opinions ➔ prejudiced фанатический, слепо преданный, нетерпимый
Coat of arms = a set of pictures or patterns painted on a shield, used as the special sign of a family, town, university etc герб
Compasses= a V-shaped instrument used for drawing circles циркуль
Critique = a detailed explanation of the problems of sth критический отзыв/ статья, рецензия
Dated = old-fashioned ➔ out-of-date вышедший из употребления, устарелый
Debatable = not certain because people have different opinions about certain things ➔ arguable дискуссионный, являющийся предметом спора, сомнительный, спорный
Decline = a decrease in the quality, quantity, or importance of sthпадение, спад, упадок, конец, закат
Detention = a punishment in which children who have behaved badly are forced to stay at school for a short time after the others have gone home оставление после уроков (в качестве наказания)
Discourse = a serious speech or piece of writing on a particular subject доклад, лекция, речь
Distinction = a clear difference or separation between two similar things отличительный признак/особенность
Easel = a wooden frame that you put a painting on while you paint it мольберт
Edict = an official public order made by someone in a position of power ➔ decree указ
Empathetic = able to understand other people's feelings and problems сопереживающий, чуткий
Excerpt = a short piece taken from a book, poem, piece of music etc ➔ extract выборка, выдержка, извлечение, отрывок
Explicit = precise ясный, подробный, явный, определённый, точный
Exuberant = happy and full of energy and excitement ➔ lively жизнерадостный
Feel for = understanding of понимание, осознание, понятие о
Fertile = fertile land or soil is able to produce good crops плодородный, изобилующий, богатый
Fruitful = producing good results ➔ productive плодотворный, продуктивный, приносящий хорошие результаты
Gauge = an instrument for measuring the size or amount of sthизмерительный прибор
Godsend = sth good that happens to you when you really need it божий дар
Governess = a female teacher in the past, who lived with a rich family and taught their children at home домашняя учительница, воспитательница, гувернантка, наставница
Grand = big and very impressive большой, величественный, грандиозный
Gratifying = pleasing and satisfying приятный, доставляющий удовольствие
Hands-on = doing sth yourself rather than just talking about it or telling other people to do it практический, связанный с жизнью
Heresy = a belief that disagrees with the official principles of a particular religion ➔ blasphemy ересь
Host = a large number of people or things масса, куча, толпа
Hostage = sb who is kept as a prisoner by an enemy so that the other side will do what the enemy demands ➔ kidnap заложник
Iconoclastic = iconoclastic ideas, opinions, writings etc attack established beliefs and customs бросающий вызов традициям и авторитетам, критически настроенный, мятежный, дерзкий
Immense = extremely large ➔ enormous безмерный, очень большой, огромный
Impassable = a road, path, or area that is impassable is impossible to travel along or through непроезжий, непроходимый
Invariably = constantly, unchangingly неизменно, постоянно, без исключений
Janitor = someone whose job is to look after a school or other large building вахтёр, привратник, швейцар
Junction = bond связывание, соединение, объединение, узел
Legitimate = acceptable or allowed by law; fair or reasonable законный, легальный, легитимный
Liable for = legally responsible for the cost of sthобязанный, ответственный
Literally = according to the most basic or original meaning of a word or expression буквально, дословно, слово в слово
Malleable = sth that is malleable is easy to press or pull into a new shape; someone who is malleable can be easily influenced or changed by other people ковкий, пластичный, податливый
Manuscript = a book or piece of writing before it is printed манускрипт, рукопись
Morale = the level of confidence and positive feelings that people have, esp people who work together, who belong to the same team etc моральное состояние, боевой дух
Moving = making you feel strong emotions, esp sadness or sympathy волнующий, трогательный
Mural = a painting on a wall, either inside or outside a building ➔ fresco фреска, стенная роспись
Opinionated = expressing very strong opinions about things самоуверенный, упрямый
Orchid = a plant that has brightly coloured and unusually shaped flowers орхидея
Outcast = someone who is not accepted by the people they live among, or who has been forced out of their home ➔ pariah изгнанник, изгой, отверженный
Oxymoron = a deliberate combination of two opposite words ➔ 'cruel kindness' оксюморон
Paramount = more important than anything else главный, основной, первостепенный
Perseverance = determination to keep trying to achieve sth in spite of difficulties настойчивость, упорство, непоколебимость
Perverse = behaving in an unreasonable way, esp by deliberately doing the opposite of what people want you to do упрямый, упорствующий (обычно в своей неправоте), капризный, несговорчивый
Pressurised = feeling worried, or making you feel worried, because of the number of things you have to do ➔ pressured находящийся под давлением
Prodigy = a young person who has a great natural ability in a subject or skill ➔ genius одарённый человек, вундеркинд
Proximity = nearness in distance or time близость, соседство
Pun = an amusing use of a word or phrase that has two meanings, or of words that have the same sound but different meanings игра слов
Refurbishment = renovation восстановление, обновление
Renowned for = known and admired by a lot of people знаменитый, известный, прославленный
Residue = the part of sth that is left after the rest has gone or been taken away остаток
Resistant to = not damaged or affected by sth ➔ proof сопротивляющийся, стойкий, прочный
Scholar = sb who knows a lot about a particular subject, esp one that is not a science subject учёный (гуманитарий)
Sediment = solid substances that settle at the bottom of a liquid осадок
Seminary = a college for training priests or ministers духовная школа, семинария
Shake-up = a process by which an organization makes a lot of big changes in a short time to improve its effectiveness встряска
Short-cut = a quicker way of doing sthукороченный, сокращенный
Sluggish = moving or reacting more slowly than normal вялый
Snobbery = behaviour or attitudes which show that you think you are better than other people, because you belong to a higher social class or know much more than they do снобизм
Sprinkler = a piece of equipment used for scattering water on grass or soil разбрызгиватель, пульверизатор
Stance = an opinion that is stated publicly ➔ stand позиция, установка
Stoppage = situation in which workers stop working for a short time as a protest забастовка
Submission = the state of being completely controlled by sbповиновение, покорность, послушание, подчинение
Substantial = large in amount or number ➔ considerable важный, значимый, значительный, существенный
Subtle = not easy to notice or understand unless you pay careful attention утончённый, изысканный, неуловимый, тонкий, едва различимый
Syllabus = a plan that states exactly what students at a school or college should learn in a particular subject ➔ curriculum программа (курса, лекций и т. п.), расписание, учебный план
Thereafter = after a particular event or time ➔ afterwards после этого, впоследствии
To adhere = to stick firmly to sthприлипать, приставать, твёрдо держаться, придерживаться чего-л., оставаться верным
To be blazoned across/on/over sth= to be written or shown on sth in a very noticeable way разглашать, обнародовать, выставлять напоказ
To beautify = to make someone or sth beautiful украшать
To bolster = to help someone to feel better and more positive ➔ to boost поддерживать, помогать
To bribe = to offer sb, esp a child, sth special in order to persuade them to do sthподкупать, давать взятку
To browse (through) = to look through the pages of a book, magazine etc without a particular purpose, just looking at the most interesting parts пролистывать, проглядывать, небрежно рассматривать, скользить взглядом
To brush up on = to practise and improve your skills or your knowledge of sth that you learned in the past освежать знаний (предмета)
To bully = to put pressure on someone in order to make them do what you want грозить, запугивать, стращатьTo bung = to block sth, esp a hole ➔ to enclose заключать в
To cater for = to provide a particular group of people with the things they need or want обслуживать
To coax = to persuade someone to do sth убеждать, упрашивать, уговаривать
To coerce = to force sb to do sth they do not want to do by threatening them заставлять, принуждать (силой или угрозами)
To compel = to force someone to do sthзаставлять, вынуждать, принуждать
To condemn = to disapprove, to look down on осуждать, порицать, презирать
To condense = to make sth that is spoken or written shorter, by using fewer words to give the same information сокращать
To conjure up = to bring a thought, picture, idea, or memory to someone's mind вызывать в воображении
To cram = to prepare yourself for an examination by learning a lot of information quickly ➔ to swot спешно готовиться к экзамену, зубритьTo depress = to press sth down, esp a part of a machine нажимать клавишу/кнопку
To determine = to define определять, устанавливать
To differentiate = to recognize or express the difference between sth ➔ to distinguish различать, проводить различия
To discard = to reject отбрасывать
To dissolve = if a solid dissolves, or if you dissolve it, it mixes with a liquid and becomes part of it растворять(ся)
To elicit = to succeed in getting information or a reaction from someone, esp when this is difficult извлекать, вытягивать, допытываться, вызывать
To encompass = to include a wide range of ideas, subjects, etc окружать, заключать
To enrich = to improve the quality of sth, esp by adding things to it обогащать, улучшать
To entail = to involve sth as a necessary part or result влечь за собой, вызывать
To exert pressure on = to use your power, influence etc in order to make sth happen оказывать давление наTo flick through = to look at a book, magazine, set of photographs etc quickly бегло просматривать, пролистывать
To grant = to give someone sth or allow them to have sth that they have asked for разрешать, давать согласие на что-л., предоставить право
To immerse = to absorb опускать, погружать, окунать
To implement = to take action or make changes that you have officially decided should happen выполнять, осуществлять, обеспечивать выполнение, приводить в исполнение
To irrigate = to supply land or crops with water орошать
To lug = to pull or carry sth heavy with difficulty волочить, тянуть, тащить
To meddle = to interfere вмешиваться, совать свой нос
To mystify = if sth mystifies you, it is so strange or confusing that you cannot understand or explain it ➔ to baffle озадачивать, вводить в заблуждение, смущать, ставить в тупик, сбивать с толку
To neglect = to fail to look after someone or sth properly; to pay too little attention to sthзабрасывать, запускать, пренебрегать, упускать, игнорировать
To nurture = to help a plan, idea, feeling etc to develop; to feed and take care of a child or a plant while it is growing кормить, питать, насыщать, вскармливать, воспитывать (детей)
To peek at = to look quickly at sth, or to look at sth from behind sth else, esp sth that you are not supposed to see ➔ to peep взглянуть, бросить взгляд, подглядывать
To plead = to beg просить, умолять
To pluck out = to take information or a short piece of writing from a book выделить ключевые моменты
To pore over = to read or look at sth very carefully for a long time пристально смотреть, разглядывать
To proofread = to read through sth in order to correct any mistakes in it читать корректуру
To pull down = to destroy sth or make it stop existing сносить, сталкивать, сбрасывать
To rear = to look after a person or animal until they are fully grown ➔ to raise воспитывать
To resolve = to find a way of dealing with a problem or difficulty ➔ to solve, to settle разрешать, решать, принимать решение
To scribble = to write sth quickly and untidily писать быстро и небрежно
To secrete = to hide sthпрятать, скрывать, укрывать
To spare = to make sth such as time, money, or workers available for someone, esp when this is difficult for you to do уделять
To stigmatize = to be treated by society as if you should feel ashamed of your situation or behaviourклеймить, позорить, поносить
Tract = a short piece of writing, esp about a moral or religious subject трактат, брошюра
Transcript = a written or printed copy of a speech, conversation etc дубликат, копия
Tutorial = a period of teaching and discussion with a tutor консультация, встреча с руководителем
Unabashed(ly) = not ashamed or embarrassed, esp when doing sth unusual or rude нерастерявшийся, несмутившийся
Underway = happening now в процессе разработки
Urge = to strongly suggest that someone does sthзаставлять, побуждать, подгонять, подстёгивать
Voracious = having an extremely strong desire to do or have a lot of sthпрожорливый, жадный, ненасытный
Wording = the words and phrases used to express sth ➔ phrasing форма выражения, формулировка
Wretched = extremely bad or unpleasant ➔ miserable бедный, несчастный, плохой, жалкий, никудышный, ужасный, отчаянный, крайний
Be the teacher’s pet = a child who everyone thinks is the teacher's favourite student and is therefore disliked by the other students любимчик
Mind one’s p’s and q’s= to be careful about what you say or how you behave so that you do not offend anyone следить за своими манерамиLearn sth by heart = when you know ыер by heart, you remember all of it exactly выучить наизусть
Be as easy as one, two, three = very easyпроще простого
Be of the old school = old-fashioned and believing in old ideas and customs старой закалки
Know sth like the back of one’s hand = to know sth very well знать как свои пять пальцев
Pass with flying colours= to get very high marks in an exam сдать экзамены с отличием
Make the grade = to succeed or reach the necessary standard добиться успеха, добиться своегоTo be a stones’ throw from = very close недалеко, в двух шагах отTo put your heart and soul into sth= to put a lot of energy into sthвложить сердце и душу во что-то
To get your feet in the door = to get your first opportunity to work in a particular organization or industry сделать первый шаг, начатьTo stand on your own two feet = to be able to do what you need to do, earn your own money, etc without help from others твердо стоять на ногах
To pull out all the stops = to do everything you possibly can to make sth happen and succeed пустить вход все приемы/методы/способы
To pick sb’s brain = to ask sb who knows a lot about sth for information and advice about it расспрашивать кого-л., обращаться к кому-л. за идеями, сведениями, советом
As a matter of course = if sth is done as a matter of course or routine, it is the correct and usual thing to do in a particular situation нечто само собой разумеющееся; ясное дело
To teach a lesson = if sb or sth teaches you a lesson, you are punished for sth you have done, so that you will not want to do it again преподать кому-то урок
To put all eggs in one basket = to depend completely on one thing or one course of action in order to get success, so that you have no other plans if this fails рисковать всем, поставить все на карту
From every walk of life/from all walks of life = the position in society someone has, esp the type of job they have из разных слоев общества
To rake over the past/old coals = to keep talking about sth that happened in the past that people would prefer you not to mention ворошить прошлое
Phrasal Verbs
Drag sb down = cause sb to fail/be destroyed губить, подводить
Drag in =inappropriately mention случайно ляпнутьDrag on = continue unnecessarily продолжаться (= тянуться)
Drag out of = manage to elicit вытянуть нужную информацию из кого-то
Keep back =reserve откладывать, скрывать что-то
Keep sb on =continue to employ держать работника
Keep to = adhere придерживаться
Keep up with = stay on the same level as оставаться на том же уровне
By and large = generally speaking в целом
By and by = soon вскоре
(fall) by the wayside = to come to nothing пойти ко дну, не осуществиться
By the book = according to instructions согласно инструкции
By law = legally по закону
By word of mouth = according to what people say/rumours из уст в уста
To strike the balance right between = to combine several things in a sensible way поддерживать правильный баланс междуTo have a go at = to try sthпопробовать свои силы в чем-то
To bust a gut = to try extremely hard to do sthрвать жилы, стараться изо всех сил
From/since time immemorial = starting longer ago than people can remember, or than written history shows с незапамятных времён
Sit Get Have Do
√ √ good marks
√ √ √ an exam
√ one’s homework
√ for one’s finals
√ expelled/suspended
√ an Easter break
√ √ a biology project
√ √ extracurricular activities
first class/ Master’s degree
higher/ first-rate education
correspondence/ refresher course
compulsory/ formal schooling
post graduate/ 2-year diploma
long-distance/ accelerated learning
tuition/registration fees
school-leaving/ medical certificate
Bright/promising pupil
Accelerated/remedial class
Underlying/basic principle
Reference/exercise book
Research/teaching method
Academic/long term

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