Upstream Advanced Unit 5


“If we continue to develop our technology without wisdom or prudence, our servant may prove to be out executioner.”
Omar Bradley (U.S. WW11 Army General)“Change is not made without inconvenience, even from worse to better.”
Richard Hooker (British theologian)
Unit 5 Our Changing World
(On the) verge (of) = be about to do; on the brink of на грани
(Be) privy to sth= sharing in the knowledge of facts that are secret посвященный в…
(Be) wedded (to sth) = to believe strongly in a particular idea or way of doing things преданный
(The) mainstream (of) = the most usual ideas or methods, or the people who have these ideas or methods господствующая тенденция, главное направлениеAccelerator = gas pedalпедаль газа
Acquisition = the process by which you gain knowledge or learn a skill приобретение
Ailment = an illness that is not very serious недомогание
Ally = sb who helps and supports you when other people are trying to oppose you союзник
Altitude = the height of an object or place above the sea высота
Ambiguous = unclear, confusing, or not certain неоднозначный, неопределенный, неясный
Ambivalent = not sure whether you want or like sth or not двойственный, противоречивый, неуверенный
Ample = more than enough; sufficient достаточный, обильный, обширный
Animosity = strong dislike or hatred; hostility враждебность
Application = practical purpose for which a machine, idea etc can be used, or a situation when this is used применение
Batty = slightly crazy, but not in an unpleasant or frightening way; nutty сумасшедший, тронутыйBlackout = a period of darkness caused by a failure of the electricity supply; power cut временное отсутствие электричества
Bluff = an attempt to deceive someone by making them think you will do sth when you do not intend to do it блеф, ложь, неправда, обманCabinet = a piece of furniture with doors and shelves or drawers, used for storing or showing things ; cupboard шкаф с выдвижными ящиками
Chatty = liking to talk a lot in a friendly way разговорчивый
Cheeky = rude or disrespectfulнаглый
Clutch = the pedal that you press with your foot when driving a vehicle in order to change gear, or the part of the vehicle that this controls сцепление
Cockpit = the area in a plane, small boat, or racing car where the pilot or driver sits кабина пилота
Compatriot = sb who was born in or is a citizen of the same country as someone else соотечественник
Comrade = a friend, esp someone who shares difficult work or danger друг, приятель, товарищ
Cynical = unwilling to believe that people have good, honest, or sincere reasons for doing sthциничный
Decisive = an action, event etc that has a big effect on the way that sth develops решающий
Defensiveness = used or intended to protect someone or sth against attack оборона
Dilapidated (derelict) = old and in very bad condition полуразрушенный, ветхий, обветшалый
Dinghy = a small open boat used for pleasure, or for taking people between a ship and the shore шлюпка (спасательная)
Disgruntled = annoyed or disappointed, esp because things have not happened in the way that you wanted раздражённый, рассерженный, недовольный
Disposal = the job of dealing with bombs that have not exploded, and making them safe разминирование
Entry = sth that you write, make, do etc in order to try and win a competition статья
Eternity = the whole of time without any end вечность
Evocative = making people remember sth by producing a feeling or memory in them вызывающий (воспоминания)
Exponent = an exponent of an idea, belief etc tries to explain it and persuade others that it is good or useful сторонник
Far-fetched = extremely unlikely to be true or to happen натянутый, неестественный, искусственный
Feud = dispute диспут; ссора; вражда
First and foremost = used to emphasize the most important quality, purpose, reason etc прежде всего, в первую очередь, во-первых
Folk = people люди, народ
Font = a set of letters of a particular size and style, used for printing books, newspapers etc or on a computer screen шрифт
Foothills = one of the smaller hills below a group of high mountains предгорье
Formidable = very powerful or impressive, and often frightening грозный, трудный
Foundry = a place where metals are melted and poured into moulds (=hollow shapes) to make parts for machines, tools etc литейное производство
Freak = unexpected and very unusual необычный, причудливый
Fuselage = the main part of a plane, in which people sit or goods are carried корпус, фюзеляж
Gearstick = a metal rod that you move in order to control the gears of a vehicle рычаг переключения передач, скоростей
Graphics card = a circuit board that connects to a computer and allows the computer to show images, such as video images, on its screen видеокарта
Heap = a large pile of things груда, куча, масса
Hitch = a problem задержка, заминка, неполадка, помеха
Home Office = government department which deals with keeping order in the country, controlling who enters the country etc Министерство Внутренних Дел
Hostility = when someone is unfriendly and full of anger towards another person враждебный акт, враждебность
Humble = modestскромный
Humility = the quality of not being too proud about yourself смирение
Hype = publicity назойливая реклама, пускание пыли в глаза; очковтирательствоIgnition = the electrical part of a vehicle's engine that makes it start working зажигание
Imminent (impending) = an event that is imminent, esp an unpleasant one, will happen very soon надвигающийся, грозящий
In limbo = in a state of certainty в состоянии неопределенности
Inconceivable = too strange or unusual to be thought real or possible невообразимый
Indignant = angry and surprised because you feel insulted or unfairly treated негодующий, возмущённый
Ineptitude = lack of skill; incompetence неумение
Landing gear = an aircraft's wheels and other parts that support them; undercarriage шасси
Leap = a large increase or change прыжок, скачок
Menace = threat угроза
Merchant = someone who buys and sells goods in large quantities купец, торговец
Misplaced = misplaced feelings of trust, love etc are wrong and unsuitable, because the person that you have these feelings for does not deserve them неуместный
Neural = relating to a nerve or the nervous system нервный, относящийся к нервной системе
Objectionable = unpleasant and likely to offend people; offensive неприятный
Obsolete = no longer useful, because sth newer and better has been invented; out-of-date устаревший
Onslaught = the effect of sth that is unpleasant and could cause damage натиск
Outbreak = epidemic вспышка, внезапное появление, начало
Outcome = result исход, итог, последствие, результат
Outing = excursion прогулка; экскурсия; пикник
Outlay = costs затраты, издержки, расходы
Outlet = shop торговая точка; магазин
Outlook = future перспективы, виды на будущее; прогноз
Output = production производительность
Outrage = anger возмущение, гнев, негодование
Outset = beginning начало; начинание
Overture = a short piece of music written as an introduction to a long piece of music, esp an opera; if an event is an overture to a more important one, it happens just before it and makes you expect it увертюра; прелюдия, вступление
Painstaking = very careful and thorough; meticulous старательный
Perceptible = sth that can be noticed, although it is very small; noticeable заметный, ощутимый, воспринимаемый, постижимый
Potent = powerfulмогущественный; могучий, мощный, сильный
Prominent = important выдающийся
Prudence = a sensible and careful attitude that makes you avoid unnecessary risks благоразумие
Refurbishment = renovationпереоборудование
Remotely = by only a small amount; slightly отдаленно
Scale = the size or level of sth, or the amount that sth is happening масштаб
Scapegoat = sb who is blamed for sth bad that happens, even if it is not their fault козел отпущение
Shabbily = dishonourably нечестно, низко, подло
Shrewd (astute) = good at judging what people or situations are really like проницательный, рассудительный
Sketch = a simple, quickly-made drawing that does not show much detail зарисовка
Spatial = relating to the position, size, shape etc of things пространственный
Strip = a long narrow piece of paper, cloth etc полоска
Think tank = a group of people with experience or knowledge of a particular subject, who work to produce ideas and give advice «мозговой центр», коллектив учёных
To ascribe (sth to sb) = to claim that sth has been written, said, made etc by a particular person приписывать
To bask (in the heat/sun) = to enjoy sitting or lying in the heat of the sun or a fire греться, наслаждаться
To be credited with = to believe or admit that sb has a quality, or has done sth good приписывать что-то кому-то
To come into play = to have an effect начать действовать
To conjure up = to create sth in your mind вызывать
To constitute = to make upсоставлять какую-то часть
To convey = to transport; to communicate or express sth, with or without using words перевозить, передавать
To cower = to bend low and move back because you are frightened сжиматься, съёживаться
To dislodge = to force or knock sth out of its position; to make sb leave a place or lose a position of power перемещать, передвигать, смещать; удалять, вытеснять
To disrupt = to prevent sth from continuing in its usual way by causing problems разрывать, разрушать; нарушать
To emerge = to appear or come out from somewhere; if facts emerge, they become known after being hidden or secret появляться; всплывать; выходить вставать, возникать (о вопросе),выясняться
To entrust ( to empower) = to make someone responsible for doing sth important, or for taking care of someone поручать, вверять, доверять
To fuel = to make sth, esp sth bad, increase or become stronger; to provoke усиливать
To hinder = to make it difficult for sth to develop or succeed; to hamper задерживать, затруднять; мешать, препятствоватьTo immerse =to put sb or sth deep into a liquid so that they are completely covered погрузитьсяTo intern for = to put someone in prison without charging them with a crime, for political reasons or during a war принудительно задерживать кого-либо
To inundate= to cover an area with a large amount of water; to flood наводнять, затоплятьTo itemize = to make a list and give details about each thing on the list перечислять по пунктам; составлять список,
классифицировать
To make out = to distinguish разобрать, увидеть, различить
To marvel (at/over) = to express great surprise or admiration at sth, esp someone's behaviour изумляться
To mimic = to imitate имитировать
To mushroom = to grow and develop very quickly расти, распространяться; внезапно и быстро вырасти
To outdistance = to run, ride etc faster than other people, esp in a race, so that you are far ahead; to outstrip обогнать; обойти, опередить
To outdo = to be better or more successful than someone else at doing sthпревзойти
To outgrow = to grow too big for sth; to no longer do or enjoy sth that you used to do, because you have grown older and changed перерастать, опережать в росте, вырастать, избавляться с возрастом от чего-то
To outrun = to run faster or further than someone else; to develop more quickly than sth else перегонять; опережать; обгонять, оставлять позади себя
To outsell = to be sold in larger quantities than sth else продаваться лучше, чем другой товар
To outsmart = to gain an advantage over sb using tricks or your intelligence; outwit перехитрить
To pester = to annoy sb, esp by asking them many times to do sth; to harass докучать, надоедать, донимать, допекать,
To pioneer = to be the first person to do, invent or use sth разрабатывать, открывать, быть первооткрывателем
To pip (sb to/for sth) = to beat sb in a race, competition etc, by only a small amount победить с минимальным перевесом; вырвать победу в последнюю минутуTo pollinate = to give a flower or plant pollen so that it can produce seeds опылять
To pull off = to achieve добиться успеха, несмотря на трудности; справиться с задачей
To ravage = to damage sth very badly губить, портить, разрушать, уничтожатьTo recur = if sth, esp sth bad or unpleasant, recurs, it happens again повторяться
To retreat = to move away from someone or sthотступать
To stutter = to speak with difficulty because you cannot stop yourself from repeating the first consonant of some words; to stammer заикаться
To submerge = to cover sth completely with water or another liquid окунать; опускать, погружать под воду
To summon = to order someone to come to a place вызывать
To terminate = to end ставить предел, ограничивать; заканчиваться, завершаться
To thrive = to become very successful or very strong and healthy; to flourish преуспевать, процветать; разрастаться
To toil (away at/over) = to work very hard for a long period of time; to slave потеть над чем-то
To unveil= to show or tell people about a new product or plan for the first time; to remove the cover from sth, esp as part of a formal ceremony раскрывать, разоблачать, предстать в истинном свете; торжественно открывать (памятник)
To vet = to check a report, speech etc carefully to make sure it is acceptable проверять
To warrant = to promise that sth is true; to need or deserve служить оправданием, основанием; подтверждать, гарантировать, ручаться
To withstand = to be strong enough to remain unharmed by sth such as great heat, cold, pressure etc; to resist, to stand up to устоять, выдержать; противостоять, не поддаваться
To wreak (havoc/mayhem/ destruction on sth) = to cause a lot of damage or problems давать выход, волю (чувству); мстить, причинять вред, ущерб
To yearn = to have a strong desire for sth, esp sth that is difficult or impossible to get; to long томиться, тосковать
Transfixed (mesmerised) = unable to move because you are very surprised, shocked, frightened, interested etc очарованный, завороженный
Trolley = large basket on wheels used for carrying bags, shopping etc; cart тележка
Unsightly = ugly or unpleasant to look at уродливый, неприглядный
Unyielding = not willing to change your ideas or beliefs твёрдый, упорный; неподатливый, несгибаемый
Upsurge = a sudden increaseповышение, подъём, рост
Volatile = likely to change suddenly and without warning; unstable непостоянный, изменчивый; неуловимый, переменный
Warfare = the activity of fighting in a war война, военные действия
Woe = great sadnessгоре, напасть, несчастье
Idioms
Be sb’s guinea pig = someone who is used in a scientific test to see how successful or safe a new product, system etc is подопытный кролик
Blind sb with science = to confuse or trick someone by using complicated language ввести кого-то в заблуждение используя научные термины
Break the mould = to change a situation completely, by doing sth that has not been done before совершить прорыв
Come down to earth = to stop behaving or living in a way that is not practical спуститься на землю
Hammer and tongs = to do sth with all your energy с большим энтузиазмом взяться за что-то
It doesn’t take a rocket scientist = used humorously to emphasize that sth is easy to do or understand не нужно иметь семь пядей во лбу, чтобы понять что-то
Move with the times = to change the way you think and behave, as society changes идти в ноге со временем
Once in a blue moon = very rarelyраз в 100 лет
Pain in the neck = to be very annoyingкость в горле
Put a spanner in the works = to unexpectedly do sth that prevents a plan or process from succeeding ставить палки в колеса
Reinvent the wheel = to waste time trying to find a way to do sth when someone else has already discovered the best way to do it изобрести велосипед, открыть Америку
Stand the test of time = stay popularпройти проверку временем
To add fuel to the fire = to make an argument or disagreement worse подливать масло в огонь
To be left to your own devices = to be left alone and allowed to do whatever you want быть предоставленным самому себе
To push the right button = to get what you want by behaving in a clever way дергать за «правильные» ниточки
To the best of sb’s knowledge = used to say that sth is as much as you know, believe, or are able to do насколько (кто-то) знает…
To tighten the screws = to force someone to do something by threatening them закрутить гайки
Turn the clock back = to return to a good situation that you experienced in the past or to make someone remember such a situation повернуть время вспять
Under the microscope = to examine a situation very closely and carefully под пристальным вниманием
Phrasal Verbs
Send back = return отсылать назад
Send for = summon послать за кем-то
Send on = forward пересылать
Send out on = order приказывать, командовать
Take back = admit to an error/withdraw a statement отрекаться, отказываться, принимать обратно
Take in = understand понять, разобраться
Take on = accept браться (за дело), принять (предложение)
Take up = begin doing sthбраться (за что-л.), заниматься (чем-л.)
Collocations
At length = for a long time в течение долгого времениIn any event = anyway в любом случае
In brief = to put sth in as few words as possible вкратце
In case = if с случае….
In fact = indeed фактически, на самом деле
In light of = because of в связи сIn person = personally лично
In private = behind closed doors наедине
In spite of = despite sthнесмотря на
In the long run = eventually в конце концов
In writing = in black and white в письменном виде
Make Hold Have Do
advances in one’s field
an important discovery
an important observation a demonstration
an international conference a successful mission
a life-changing experience
evidence of stha change for the better
experimental work
ground-breaking research
a scientific project
Collocations
Technological era/warfare
Automated factory/appliances
New age philosophy/travellers
Scientific inquiry/journal
High-tech gadgetry/industry
Experimental stage/research
Space exploration/station
Digital voice discs/camera


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