Upstream Advanced Unit 4


“What makes equality such a difficult subject is that we only want it with our superiors.”
Henry Becque (French dramatist)
“Crime and bad lives are the measure of a state’s failures.”
H.G. Wells (British novelist)
Unit 4 Growing Concerns
(In) mitigation = if you say sth in mitigation, you try to make someone's crime or mistake seem less serious or show that they were not completely responsible смягчение, оправдание
(Be a) rarity = to not happen or exist very often редкость
(Be) commissioned (into sth) = to be given an officer's rank in the army, navy etc дать офицерское звание
(On the) scrapheap= not wanted or used any more – (used esp when this seems unfair) свалка
(the) rear = the back part of an object, or a position at the back of an object or area задняя часть, тыл
(the) remainder= the rest остаток
A ripe old age= if you live to a ripe old age, you are very old when you die прожить много лет
Abduction = kidnappingпохищение
Advocate = sb who publicly supports someone or sth; a lawyer who speaks in a court of law, esp in Scotland сторонник
Aftermath = the period of time after sth such as a war, storm, or accident when people are still dealing with the results последствия
Albeit = although хотя и…
Alibi = sth that proves that someone was not where a crime happened and therefore could not have done it алиби
Articulate = able to talk easily and effectively about things, esp difficult subjects четко выражающий свои мысли
Assassination = the act of murdering an important person политическое убийство
Assault = the crime of physically attacking someone; a military attack to take control of a place controlled by the enemy нападение, штурм
Assimilation = the process of becoming an accepted part of a country or group усвоение
Baffling = perplexing, puzzling озадачивающий
Barber = a man whose job is to cut men's hair and sometimes to shave them парикмахер
Barrister = a lawyer in Britain who can argue cases in the higher law courts адвокат
Blithely = happily and having no worries беспечно
Bond = an official document promising that a government or company will pay back money that it has borrowed, often with interest облигация
Borough = a town, or part of a large city, that is responsible for managing its own schools, hospitals, roads etc район
Burden = sth difficult or worrying that you are responsible for бремя
Carriageway = one of the two sides of a motorway or main road, for vehicles travelling in the same direction проезжая часть дороги
Catalytic converters = a piece of equipment fitted to a car's exhaust system that reduces the amount of poisonous gases the engine sends out каталитический глушитель
Censorship = the practice of to examining books, films, letters etc and removing anything that is considered offensive, morally harmful, or politically dangerous цензура
Civil servant = someone employed in the government departments that manage the affairs of the country государственный служащий
Claim = a right to do sth or to have sth; an official request for money that you think you have a right to; a statement that sth is true, even though it has not been proved притязание, требование, утверждение
Committed to = willing to work very hard at sth; dedicated преданный
Compatible (with) = able to exist or be used together without causing problems совместимый
Cone = an object that is put on a road to prevent cars from going somewhere or to warn drivers about sthконус
Congestion = full of trafficзатор
Console = a flat board that contains the controls for a machine, piece of electrical equipment, computer etc пульт управления
Creed = a set of beliefs or principles убеждение
Crook = a dishonest person or a criminal мошенник
Cross-referencing перекрестная ссылка
Culprit (perpetrator) = the person who is guilty of a crime or doing sth wrong виновник
Custody = when someone is kept in prison until they go to court, because the police think they have committed a crime; the right to take care of a child, given to one of their parents when they have divorced арест; опека
Delinquent = sb, esp a young person, who breaks the law or behaves in ways their society does not approve of правонарушитель
Dense(ly) = made of or containing a lot of things or people that are very close together плотный(но), густо(й)
Deputy = sb who is directly below another person in rank, and who is officially in charge when that person is not there заместитель
Digit = one of the written signs that represent the numbers 0 to 9 знак
Dimension = the length, height, width, depth, or diameter of sth; measurement мера
Dock = the part of a law court where the person who is charged with a crime stands скамья подсудимых
Domestic violence = violence by a family member бытовое насилие
Donation = sth, esp money, that you give to an organization in order to help it пожертвование
Downhearted = feeling sad and disappointed, esp because you have tried to achieve something but have failed унылый
Embezzlement = stealing money from the company where you work хищение, кража денег с рабочего места
Eminently = hugely чрезвычайно
Emission = the act of sending out light, heat, gas etc испускание, излучение
Essence= the most basic and important quality of sth сущность, суть, основа
Eulogy = a speech or piece of writing in which you praise sb or sth very much, esp at a funeral похвала
Evangelical = related to Christianityевангельский
Felony = a serious crime such as murder преступление
Fiscal = relating to money, taxes, debts etc that are owned and managed by the government финансовый, денежный
Fraud = gaining money through dishonest means обман, мошенничество, шантаж, вымогательство
Further afield = further away from where you are now дальше
Gambling = when people risk money or possessions on the result of sth which is not certain, such as a card game or a horse race азартные игры
Grim = making you feel worried or unhappy суровый, неприятный
Handcuffs = a pair of metal rings joined by a chain наручники
Headquarters = the main building or offices used by a large company or organization;
the place from which military operations are controlled штаб-квартира, главный офис
Heat-seeking device тепловизорHomicide = the crime of murderубийство
Idiosyncratic = an unusual habit or way of behaving that someone has; an unusual or unexpected feature that sth has своеобразный, необычный, эксцентричный
Imminent = impending грозящий, надвигающийся
Impartial = not involved in a particular situation, and therefore able to give a fair opinion or piece of advice; fair беспристрастный
In absentia = without being presentв отсутствии
In the interim = in the period of time between two events; meanwhile тем временем
Inevitable = certain to happen and impossible to avoid неизбежный
Infantry = soldiers who fight on foot пехота
Inmate = someone who is being kept in a prison заключенный
Integrity = honesty честность
Interrogators = sb who asks a lot of questions for a long time in order to get information, sometimes using threats следователь
Intruder = someone who illegally enters a building or area, usu in order to steal sthграбитель
Invasive = intrusive вторгающийся, вмешивающийся
Jaywalking = crossing the street in the wrong place переход улицы в неположенном месте
Judge = the official in control of a court who decides how criminals should be punished судья
Juror = a member of a jury присяжный
Justice of the Peace/ magistrate = sb who judges less serious cases in small law courts and, in the US, can perform marriage ceremonies/ sb, not usually a lawyer, who works as a judge in a local court of law, dealing with less serious crimes мировой судья
Kidnapping = holding sb against their will in order to gain sthпохищение людей
Lad (chap) = a boy or young man парень
Lawsuit = a problem or complaint that a person or organization brings to a court of law to be settled процесс
Lawyer = sb whose job is to advise people about laws, write formal agreements, or represent people in court адвокат, юрист
Layman = not trained; someone who is not a priest but is a member of a church неспециалист; мирянин
Lease = a legal agreement which allows you to use a building, car etc for a period of time, in return for rent аренда
Liability = legal responsibility for sth, esp for paying money that is owed, or for damage or injury обязательство, обязанность, ответственность
Libel = publishing lies about sbклевета
Liberation = the act of freeing prisoners, a city, a country etc from someone's control освобождение
Littering = leaving rubbish in a public place мусорить
Livelihood = the way you earn money in order to live средства к жизни
Loitering with intent = remaining in a public place without obvious reason слоняться
Mandatory = if sth is mandatory, the law says it must be done; compulsory, obligatory обязательный
Manslaughter = unintentionally causing sb’s death непредумышленное убийство
Minor = below the age at which sb become legally responsible for their actions несовершеннолетний
Misdemeanour = a crime that is not very serious; a bad or unacceptable action that is not very serious проступок
Modicum = small amount небольшое количество
Moot = sth that has not yet been decided or agreed, and about which people have different opinions спорный
Mugging = robbing sb in the street уличный грабеж
Multi-storey = a car parkмногоэтажная парковка
Murder = planning and causing death of sbубийство
Oddly = in a strange or unusual way; strangely странно
Over-the-counter = without a prescription from a doctor без рецепта
Overwhelming(ly) = very large or greater, more important etc than any other подавляющий
Perjury = the crime of telling a lie after promising to tell the truth in a court of law, or a lie told in this way нарушение клятвы
Pillar (of society/the community/the church etc) = sb who is an important and respected member of a group, and is involved in many public activities духовный наставник, глава, важный член общества
Plate = a flat piece of metal with words or numbers on it (on a door or a car) номерной знак
Plight = a very bad situation that someone is in незавидное положение
Probation officer = sb whose job is to watch, advise, and help people who have broken the law and are on probation должностное лицо, осуществляющее надзор за людьми условно-освобожденными
Proponent= someone who supports sth or persuades people to do sthсторонник
Prosecutor = a lawyer who is trying to prove in a court of law that sb is guilty of a crime обвинитель, прокурор
Proverbial = well-known by a lot of people общеизвестный, вошедший в поговорку
Rape = the crime of forcing someone to have sex, esp by using violence изнасилование
Readable = interesting and enjoyable to read, and easy to understand интересный
Renowned = known and admired by a lot of people; famous известный
Residential = relating to homes rather than offices or businesses жилой
Riot = a protest against sthбунт, восстание
Road hog = sb who drives badly or too fast without thinking about other people's safety лихач, нарушитель на дороге
Robe(s) = a long loose piece of clothing, esp one worn for official ceremonies мантия
Roundabout = a raised circular area where three or more roads join together and which cars must drive around synonym traffic circle кольцевая транспортная развязка
Scuffle= a short fight that is not very violent потасовка
Security = sth such as property that you promise to give sb if you cannot pay back money you have borrowed from them; stocks or shares in a company залог; ценные бумаги
Settlement = an official agreement or decision that ends an argument, a court case, or a fight, or the action of making an agreement; when you pay all the money that you owe соглашение, уплата, расчет
Shoplifting = the crime of stealing things from shops воровство в магазине
Shortfall = the difference between the amount you have and the amount you need or expect; deficit дефицит
Slander = publicly lying about sbклевета
Solicitor = a type of lawyer in Britain who gives legal advice, prepares the necessary documents when property is bought or sold, and defends people, esp in the lower courts of law адвокат, юрист
Spokesperson = representative представитель
Spree = a short period of time when you do a lot of one activity кутеж, разгул
Stationary = standing still instead of moving неподвижный
Stern = serious and strict, and showing strong disapproval of sb's behaviour серьезный, строгий
Stock (excuse/question/
remark etc) = an excuse etc that people often say or use, esp when they cannot think of anything more interesting or original – (used to show disapproval) стандартный
String of sth= a number of similar things or events coming one after another; series череда
Subscription = an amount of money you pay regularly to be a member of an organization or to help its work, or the act of paying money for this внос; подписка; абонемент
Supreme court = the most important court of law in some countries or some states of the US верховный суд
Surveillance = when the police, army, etc watch a person or place carefully because they may be connected with criminal activities надзор
Thence = from there or following that оттуда
To accumulate = to gradually increase in numbers or amount накапливать
To acquit (acquittal) = to give a decision in a court of law that someone is not guilty of a crime оправдать (оправдание)
To allege = to say that sth is true or that sb has done sth wrong, although it has not been proved утверждать
To appeal against = to make a formal request to a court or someone in authority asking for a decision to be changed подать прошение о пересмотре дела
To be mooted = to be suggested for people to consider; to put forward выдвинуть
To befriend = to behave in a friendly way towards sbподружиться
To boom = to flourish процветать
To brandish = to wave sth around in a dangerous or threatening way, esp a weapon размахивать
To brawl = to quarrel or fight in a noisy way, esp in a public place скандалить, драться
To cater for = to provide a particular group of people with the things they need or want поставлять, удовлетворять нужды
To charge sb with = to accuse sb of sthобвинить кого-то в чем-то
To compile = to make a book, record etc, using different pieces of information, music etc составлять
To condemn = to disapprove; to sentence sb to… осудить, осуждать
To confer = to officially give someone a title etc, esp as a reward for sth they have achieved; to discuss sth with other people, so that everyone can express their opinions and decide on sthприсуждать; совещаться
To convict = to prove or officially announce that someone is guilty of a crime after a trial in a law court осуждать
To corner = to force a person or animal into a position from which they cannot easily escape загнать в угол
To declare = to state officially and publicly that a particular situation exists or that sth is true объявлять, заявлять
To detain = to officially prevent someone from leaving a place брать по стражу
To devastate = to damage sth very badly or completely; to make someone feel extremely shocked and sad разорять, опустошать; огорчать, расстраивать
To discard = to get rid of sth; throw away отбрасывать
To discharge = to officially allow someone to leave somewhere, esp the hospital or the army, navy etc, or to tell them that they must leave освобождать
To disobey = to refuse to do what sb with authority tells you to do, or refuse to obey a rule or law не подчиняться
To displace = to replace перемещать
To empower = to give a person or organization the legal right to do sthуполномочивать
To encapsulate = to express or show sth in a short way; sum up сконцентрировать, суммировать
To enrage = to make someone very angry (вз)бесить
To enshrine = if sth such as a tradition or right is enshrined in sth, it is preserved and protected so that people will remember and respect it охранять
To envisage = to think that sth is likely to happen in the future предусматривать
To gauge = to measure or calculate sth by using a particular instrument or method измерять, оценивать (сущ. мера, критерий)
To get behind the wheel = driving a carсесть за руль
To give way to =to yield уступать
To grant = to give sb sth or allow them to have sth that they have asked for даровать
To impose (on) = if sb in authority imposes a rule, punishment, tax etc, they force people to accept it облагать, налагать
To infuse = to fill sth or someone with a particular feeling or quality пропитывать, внушать
To intimidate = to frighten or threaten someone into making them do what you want запугивать
To keep tabs on = to watch someone or something carefully to check what they are doing следить за…
To log on = to do the necessary actions on a computer system that will allow you to begin using it войти в систему
To mitigate = to make a situation or the effects of sth less harmful, or serious; to alleviate смягчать
To mourn = to feel very sad and to miss someone after they have died; to grieve for скорбеть, оплакивать
To move off = if a vehicle or group of people moves off, it starts to leave отъехать
To nick = to steal sth; to pinch, to steal стибрить, стащить
To originate = to come from a particular place or start in a particular situation порождать
To overrule = to change an order or decision that you think is wrong, using your official power отвергать
To perceive = to understand or think of sth or sb in a particular way воспринимать
To prevail = to dominate преобладать
To pull up = to stop the vehicle that you are driving останавливать(ся)
To remand = to send someone back from a court of law, to wait for their trial содержать под стражей
To rest on = to be based on a particular idea or set of facts основываться на
To retain = to keep sth or continue to have sthудерживать
To revoke = to officially state that a law, decision, or agreement is no longer effective отменять
To settle down = to start giving all of your attention to a job or activity усаживаться, усесться
To shuffle = to walk very slowly and noisily, without lifting your feet off the ground шаркать ногами
To slash = to greatly reduce an amount, price etc урезать
To squat (down) = to sit with your knees bent under you and your bottom just off the ground, balancing on your feet сесть на корточки (прил. приземистый)
To stall = if an engine or vehicle stalls, or if you stall it, it stops because there is not enough power or speed to keep it going глохнуть, заглушить
To stigmatize (stigma) = to be treated by society as if you should feel ashamed of your situation or behaviour заклеймить (клеймо)
To subsidise = if a government or organization subsidizes a company, activity etc, it pays part of its costs субсидировать
To swap = to exchange обменяться, поменять
To track = to follow отслеживать
To treble = to increase by three times as much; to triple утраиваться
To twitch = to move (sth) quickly and suddenly дёргать(ся)
To undertake = to accept that you are responsible for a piece of work, and start to do it предпринимать, взять на себя, обязываться
To usher = to show people to their seats at a theatre, cinema, wedding etc; to guide people in and out of the court rooms вводить
To wipe out = to destroy, remove, or get rid of sth or a group of people completely; to erase стереть с лица земли
Transaction = a business deal or action; the process of doing business дело, сделка
Trawl = an act of searching through a lot of documents, lists etc in order to find sthпоиск
Trespassing = illegally entering sb’s property вторжение
Trial = a legal process; a process of testing; a special sports competition процесс, суд; проба, испытание, попытка
Tribunal = a type of court that is given official authority to deal with a particular situation or problem трибунал, военный суд
Truncheon = a short thick stick that police officers carry as a weapon; nightstick дубинка
Trunk road = a main road used for travelling long distances магистральная дорога
Unanimous = agreeing completely about sthединогласный
Undisclosed = used to describe information which is not given to the public скрытый, секретный
Unleaded fuel = unleaded fuel does not contain any lead неэтилированное топливо
Upward = moving or pointing towards a higher position направленный верх
Vagrant = someone who has no home or work, esp someone who begs; tramp бродяга
Vandalism = destruction of public property вандализм
Vicious = violent and cruelзлобный, порочный
Zeal = eagerness to do sth, esp to achieve a particular religious or political aim рвение, усердие
Idioms
Be a fly on the wall = to be able to watch what happens without other people knowing that you are there наблюдать за кем-то будучи незамеченным
Bridge the generation gap = to reduce or get rid of the difference between generations усилить связь поколений
Charity begins at home = a phrase meaning that you should take care of your own family, country etc before you help other people своя рубашка ближе к телу
Foot the bill for sth= to pay for sth, esp stj expensive that you do not want to pay for быть вынужденным заплатить
Kill two birds with one stone = to achieve two things with one action убить двух зайцев одним выстрелом
Make a killing on sth= to make a lot of money in a short time сколотить состояние, сорвать куш
On the fringes of society = has very little power, importance or influence (syn. on the margin(s)) на отшибе общества
Rob Peter to pay Paul = to take money away from sb or sth that needs it in order to pay sb else or use it for sth else: ограбить одного, чтобы заплатить другому
Take the law into ones’ hands = to do sth illegal in order to put right sth that you think is not fair, for example by violently punishing someone instead of telling the police вершить правосудие
The law of the jungle = the idea that people should only look after themselves and not care about other people if they want to succeed; the principle that only the strongest creatures will stay alive закон джунглей
Throw oneself on the mercy of the court = to ask someone to help you or forgive you when you are in a very bad situation отдаться на милость правосудия
Phrasal Verbs
Cut back = reduce сократить
Cut down = decrease уменьшить, снизить, сократить
Cut in = interrupt вмешаться, перебить
Cut off = sever, separate отделить от
Pass away = die умереть
Pass on = give to the next person передать другому человеку
Pass out = faint упасть в обморок, потерять сознание
Pass over = ignore игнорировать
Collocations
A suspended sentence = a punishment given by a court in which a criminal is told he will be sent to prison if he does anything else illegal within the time mentioned условный приговор
Alleged ties предполагаемые связи
Capital punishment = death sentence смертный приговор
Community service = work that is not paid that sb does to help other people, sometimes as punishment for a crime общественные работы
Contempt (of court) = disobedience or disrespect towards a court of law неуважение к суду
Court case/order судебное дело/распоряжение
Hardened criminal = criminals who have and will continue to commit a lot of crimes отъявленный преступник
Juvenile crime = crimes committed by children and teenagers подростковая преступность
Legal action = the use of the legal system to settle an argument, put right an unfair situation etc правовой процесс
Legal advisor/representative правовой советник/представитель
Life imprisonment/sentence пожизненное заключение/приговор
Military/international law военное/международное право
On probation = a system that allows some criminals not to go to prison or to leave prison, if they behave well and see a probation officer regularly, for a particular period of time на условном освобождении
Police record/inquiry полицейский протокол/расследование
Presumption of innocence презумпция невиновности
Revocation of a privilege отмена привилегий
Severe/capital punishment = death penaltyсмертная казнь/строгое наказание
Suborning a witness = to persuade sb to tell lies in a court of law or to do sth else that is illegal, esp for money подкуп свидетеля
Third-age loneliness одиночество в пожилом возрасте
To be let off with a court warning быть отпущенным судом, отделавшись предупреждением
To be released on bail = money left with a court of law to make sure that someone will return to court for their trial быть отпущенным под залог
To be released on parole = permission for sb to leave prison, if they promise to behave well быть отпущенным под честное слово
To be sentenced to a (n-year) prison term = the punishment of being put in prison for a certain period of time быть приговоренным к n-летнему тюремному заключению
To break out of prison = to escape from a prison сбежать из тюрьмы
To break/pass a law = to do sth illegal/ to officially accept a law or proposal, esp by voting нарушить/принимать закон
To commit a crime = to do sth wrong or illegal совершить преступление
To do one’s bit = to do a fair share of the work, effort etc that is needed to achieve sth внести свой склад
To give evidence = to tell a court about what you have seen or know to be true предоставить доказательство
To lay down the law = to tell other people what to do, how they should think etc, in a very strong or impolite way приказывать кому-то что-то делать
To make an arrest = when the police take sb away and guard them because they may have done sth illegal произвести задержание
To pay a fine/penalty =/something bad that happens to you because of sth you have done заплатить штраф/заплатить за то что сделал
To pay for one’s crime = to suffer or be punished for sth you have done wrong заплатить за преступление
To play truant = to stay away from school without permission; to skive, to play hooky прогуливать занятия
To plead guilty = to state in a court of law that you are guilty of a crime признать кого-то виновным
To reach a verdict = to successfully agree on something with other people вынести вердикт
To serve sb a warrant предъявить ордер
To take the blame = to say that sth is all your fault взять на себя вину
To take the matter to court = to bring a legal case against sthпередать дело в суд
To take/make a stand on/ against sth= a strong effort to defend yourself or to oppose sthзащищать, стоять против…
To take/pass time in prison = to spend time in prison мотать срок
do sthrace go win
against
one’s better judgement
sb’s wishes
the law
one’s principles
sb’s advice the clock one’s better judgement
the establishment
sb’s wishes
one’s principles
sb’s advice all odds

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