Magnetron sputtering a review of recent developments


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defect-freecoatingsofinsulatingmaterials,particularly
oxides,ishighlyproblematic.Theprocessishamperedby
lowdepositionratesandtheoccurrenceofarceventsat
Fig.1.Schematicrepresentationoftheplasmacon
erentmagnetronmodesisshownschematicallyinFig.1.
Thus,inadditiontoprovidingahigh
uxofcoating
atoms(comparedtoabasicsputteringsource),anunbal-
oftheorderof1000timesgreaterthanafullydense
materialwereproduced[26].Further,asshowninFig.2,
thetemperatureatwhichthesecoatingsspontaneously
reactedinairwasshowntobedependentonthee
surfaceareaofthe
sameconditionsinthemirrored,orsingleunbalanced
Fig.4.Thevariationwithsubstrate
Fig.5.Acomparisonofthecurrent
voltagecharacteristicsforvarious
MoSTandGraphit-iCaretrademarksofTeerCoatingsLtd.
aMoSTcoatedtool,comparedtoothertools,forend
milloperationsonawroughtaluminiumalloy[38].
Graphit-iCcoatingsareanewtypeofhardcarbon
coatingthatcanoutperformestablishedDLCcoatingsin
P.J.Kelly,R.D.Arnell
Vacuum56(2000)159
Fig.6.Anexampleoftheimprovementinlifeo
eredbyMoSTcoat-
ingsoverconventionalMoS
anduncoatedtoolsinadrypunching
operation(afterRef.[37]).
Fig.7.Acomparisonoffeedratesachievedforuncoatedandcoated
endmilltools(afterRef.[37]).
certainapplications[37,39].Thecoatingsareagainde-
Fig.8.ThroughthicknessTEMmicrographofatungstencoating
depositedat
0.13.Thelighterregionsinthemicrographare
polygonalgrain-likeregions,whicharesurroundedbydarkerregions
ofhigh-dislocationdensity.
Fig.9.Acomparison,intermsofhomologoustemperature,ofthe
positionsofthezonalboundariesgiveninpublishedstructurezone
modelsrelatingtoothersputteringsystemswiththeboundariesob-
servedfortheCFUBMSsystem.
Aluminiumcoatingsweredepositedathomologous
temperaturesovertherange0.43to0.68.Allhadfully
dense,highlyductilestructures,which
Fig.10.StructurezonemodelrelatingtotheCFUBMSsystem,in
whichstructuresaredescribedintermsofhomologoustemperature,
ion-to-atomratioandbiasvoltage.
Fig.11.Variationwithtimeofthecummulativenumberofhardarcs
Fig.13.SEMmicrographsofthefracturesectionsofaluminiumoxide
depositedby(a)DCreactivesputtering,and(b)pulsedDCreactive
Duetothemuchhighermobilityofelectronsinthe
plasmathanions,itisusuallyonlynecessarytoreverse
Fig.14.Transmissionspectraforaluminiumoxidecoatingsdeposited
byDCreactivesputteringandpulsedDCreactivesputtering(afterref.
Fig.15.Thevariationwithpulsefrequencyandbiasvoltageofthe
substrateioncurrentforpulsedDCbiasconditions(afterref.[61]).
andabove,withequalpulse-onandpulse-o
times,and
structureseeninFig.13,signi
cantimprovementsare
alsoobtainedinthephysicalpropertiesofaluminacoat-
ingsdepositedusingtheconditionsdescribedabove.For
example,Fig.14showsthetransmissionspectraforalu-
miniumoxidecoatingsdepositedbyDCreactivesputter-
ingandpulsedDCreactivesputtering,usingthe
SPARC-LE20pulseunit.Atawavelengthof550nm,the
transmissionofthePMScoatingis
97%.Incontrast,
theDCsputteredcoatinghasatransmissionofonly45%
atthiswavelength[58].
ThePMSprocesshasalsobeenextendedtodual
individualsurfacetechnology
[14].Twogeneralgroups
areidenti
ed;thoseinwhichtheindividualprocesses
complementeachotherandthecombinede
ectsresult
P.J.Kelly,R.D.Arnell
Vacuum56(2000)159
Fig.17.Ball-on-wheelweartestresultsforuntreated,PVDTiNcoated,
plasmanitridedandduplextreatedEn40Bsteel(afterRef.[14]).
Fig.18.Thedesignphilosophybehindobtainingimprovedproperties
throughduplexsurfaceengineeringprocesses(afterRef.[14]).
frombothprocesses(group1),andthosewhereone
processsupplements,orreinforcestheother,actingas
apre-,orpost-treatment,andtheresultantpropertiesare
mainlyrelatedtooneprocess(group2).Examplesfrom
bothgroupsofprocessaregiveninRefs.[13,14].
PVDtreatmentofapre-nitridedsteelisagood
exampleofagroup1process.Plasmanitridingproduces
arelativelythick(
m),hardened(
10GPa)sub-
surface.A3
mthicktitaniumnitride(TiN)layercan
thenbedepositedontothenitridedsurfaceusingvarious
sputteringprocessandconsidersfutureareasofexploita-
tionforthistechnique.
Anumberofpeoplehavecontributedmaterialfor
inclusioninthispaper.Theauthorswouldparticularly
liketothankVanessaFoxofTeerCoatings,Dermot
PlasmaSurfaceTechnologiesWorkshop,PPST
99,SanDiego,
April8
[62]FoxV,PersonalcommunicationtoKellyPJ,ArnellRD.Teer
CoatingsLtd.,290HartleburyTradingEstate,Hartlebury,
Kidderminster,WorcestershireDY104JB,UK,August1999.
[63]RossnagelSM,CuomoJJ,WestwoodWD,editors.Handbookof

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